Chelating Agents - The Natural Recovery Plan

Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart

Chelation therapy has been conclusively shown to be up to 82 Percent Effective at dissolving the plaque that blocks arteries! In the ebook Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart you'll discover: The frustrating reason many doctors are ignoring Edta chelationor even openly rejecting it. The deadly heart surgeries even the American Heart Association admits are unnecessary. The hidden signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes? Are you in danger right now?. The average number of years stripped away by heart and vessel disease. Can you get them back?. The newest set of risk factors for heart disease (they'll likely surprise you!). Shady government practices that protect Big Pharma and keep Edta chelation out of the public eye. How the Roman Empire could have been savedif only they'd known about Edta chelation. Why Edta chelation is guaranteed to be safeeven in extremely high doses. (It puts aspirin to shame!). The shocking truth about plaque in young childrenand how to keep your little ones safer. Why dentists, artists and welders need Edta chelationand whether your workplace is dangerous too. The differences between IV and oral chelationand which kind of Edta is right for you. Other forms of chelationand how these little-known treatments can dramatically boost your health.

Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart Summary

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Author: Michael Cutler, M.D.
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Single Species Ecotoxicity

Although antibiotics can be introduced to the terrestrial environment via dispersion of sewage treatment sludge on agricultural fields, to date very little research with limited number of compounds (e.g., tetracyclines and sulfona-mides) has been conducted on terrestrial impacts. It is also feasible that terrestrial systems that are closely linked to aquatic systems receiving antibiotic inputs could be indirectly affected by impacts to aquatic system structure and function. In agricultural soil, MIC50s (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for sensitive Pseudomonas spp. were 2.0, 0.5, and 1.0 mgl-1 for tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively, and 0.25 mgl for other sensitive strains of bacteria for each of these compounds. It is important to note that the presence of divalent metals may reduce the antibacterial effects of tetracyclines via chelation reactions. Such bioavailability and effects relationships need further investigation.

Biomonitoring See bioassay

Bioremediation The use of living organisms to break down pollutants or wastes, such as industrial effluents, mining spoil, or oil spills, and to restore contaminated ecosystems. Plants may be used (phy-toremediation) to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils and water. Some crop species can be genetically modified to accumulate toxic ions, e.g. Arabidopsis has been altered to express the enzyme mercuric ion reductase, which converts Hg2+ to Hg, which is volatilized and released into the atmosphere. Uptake may also be assisted by the use of chemical chelating agents to immobilize the toxins. Contaminated water is treated by rhizofiltration using plants with high transpiration rates and extensive root systems, such as willows (Salix) or reeds (Phragmites), or by the use of aquatic plants that are removed and destroyed once they have extracted the toxins. Organic wastes are usually tackled by bacteria and protozoans, and occasionally fungi (certain fungi are capable of breaking...

Atp As A Measure Of Active Microbial Biomass

Luciferin rather than firefly tails are used, the light output is extended and constant. Useful extracting reagents include combinations of anions (phosphate) and cations that adequately lyse cells, inhibit adsorption of the ATP to soil surfaces, and inhibit the numerous soil ATPases. Most extraction reagents inhibit the luciferase reaction to some extent therefore, the solution is diluted as much as possible before measurement. A mixture consisting of phosphoric acid, urea, dimethyl sulfoxide, adenosine, EDTA, and polyoxyethylene-10-laryl ether is now often used. Total adenylates (ATP, ADP, and AMP) can be measured after extraction with dimethyl sulfoxide and a 0.01 M Na3PO4 0.02 M EDTA buffer by the HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) method. During microbial growth, the C ATP ratio can vary from 1000 1 to 40 1. In the resting state, the ATP C N P S ratios are usually 1 250 40 9 2.6. ATP measures of both biomass and activity are influenced by the soil P content. This...

Architecture Of Type 2 Omethyltransferases

A calcium atom is observed in the active site, surrounded by an octahedral coordination shell. The side chain oxygens of Thr 63, Glu 67, Asp 163, Asp 189, and Asn 190 are involved in the chelation of this calcium atom, completed by the 3-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl CoA or 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA and a water molecule. This calcium atom substitutes the Mg2+ atom expected at this position, and is present in the catechol OMT structure with the same coordination geometry.2'38 In CCoAOMT, Mg2+ mediates the deprotonation of the caffeoyl 3-hydroxyl group and maintains the 3-hydroxyl group in close proximity to the reactive methyl group of SAM ( 3A), suitably positioned for facile transmethylation to occur (Fig. 2.8).

Plant Chemical Defenses

Nonnitrogenous Defenses Nonnitrogenous defenses include phenolics, terpenoids, photooxidants, insect hormone or pheromone analogs, pyrethroids, and aflatoxins (Figs. 3.2-3.5). Phenolics, or flavenoids, are distributed widely among terrestrial plants and are likely among the oldest plant secondary (i.e., nonmetabolic) compounds. Although phenolics are perhaps best known as defenses against herbivores and plant pathogens, they also protect plants from damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, provide support for vascular plants (lignins), compose pigments that determine flower color for angiosperms, and play a role in plant nutrient acquisition by affecting soil chemistry. Phenolics include the hydrolyzeable tannins, derivatives of simple phenolic acids, and condensed tannins, polymers of higher molecular weight hydroxyflavenol units (Fig. 3.3). Polymerized tannins are highly resistant to decomposition, eventually composing the humic materials that largely determine soil properties. Tannins...

Dissolved organic matter DOM

In some cases, organic solutes have a growth-promoting effect, and seem to have a role in nutrition comparable to that of vitamins, auxins or hormones. Experiments with cultures of marine algae indicate that some have specific organic requirements for normal growth, for example cobalamin. Chelating agents in seawater may also be of some importance, favouring plant growth by bringing into solution essential trace metals which occur in particulate form. The enhanced fertility of coastal water for phytoplankton growth may be partly attributable to the large amounts of DOM derived from land drainage. The group of coloured organic solutes broadly termed 'humic substances' are also thought to fulfil a nutrient function for some marine plants.

Extraction of Available Ions

Analytical procedures for available ions attempt to reproduce the environmental conditions by a suitable choice of extracting solution. The procedure is simply to shake the soil with the extracting solution for a fixed period, typically one hour. A range of extracts have been used for this, including ammonium acetate solution, dilute acetic acid, dilute hydrochloric acid and EDTA solution, in order to mimic local conditions. This has led to problems in comparison of results with other laboratories where a different extractant may have been used and consequently a different proportion of the ions released. Once in solution, the ions can be analysed by the methods discussed above in Chapters 3 and 4.

Waste Metal Processing

A complete analysis of a waste stream must be available before any process considerations can be made. An understanding of the solution chemistry for a metal is also required before a test program can be started. Copper is a common waste metal and is an example of a divalent metal. Copper is usually found as a divalent cation having good affinity for cation exchange resins. It also forms complexes with amines. It also occurs as an anion when complexed with EDTA or other chelating agents. A waste liquor with copper, calcium, and sodium shows that the capacity is reduced by the presence of divalent cations other than copper. A selective resin based on EDTA removes copper from high concentrations of sodium chloride and to a lesser extent from calcium chloride. Cyanide complexes form stable complexes with strong base resins, and the metals can be recovered after the complex is destroyed with acid. In process engineering, environmental engineers should avoid such reactions unless they make...

Speciation and the Bioavailability Conundrum

This is why the chelator ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is added to many culture media. Without it, the metal ions present as impurities in the salts used to prepare the media would be far too toxic for any phyto-plankton to grow. Similarly, chelators like EDTA are used to strip metal ions like Pb2+ when people suffer from lead poisoning.

Wastewater Treatment

Adsorption onto sediments and detritus Volatilization (e.g., ammonia) Chelation and complexation Nutrients and other pollutants in the wastewater passing through the wetland undergo transformations along several pathways involving physical, chemical, and biological processes. The major physical process is the settling of suspended particulate matter. The settling process depends upon, besides the nature and size of the particles, the residence time of inflowing wastewater within the wetland and the physical resistance offered by the vegetation to flow velocity. The reduction in suspended particulates, particularly the organic matter, results in an increase in transparency (lowered turbidity) and a major reduction in the biological oxygen demand (BOD). The chemical processes include adsorption, chelation and precipitation, and reduction and oxidation. Among the biological processes, most important are those mediated by microorganisms which decompose the dissolved and particulate...

Micronutrient And Trace Metal Cycling In Soil

A generic cycle diagram for micronutrient and trace metals in soils is illustrated in Fig. 15.8. Concentrations of elements as free ions or soluble complexes are strongly influenced by abiotic reactions such as changes in oxidation state, fixation to mineral surfaces, complexation with organic matter, and formation of insoluble minerals. Microorganisms are able to solubilize minerals and change the soil redox potential and pH. Plant availability of micronutrients is therefore highly dependent on microbial activity. Recycling of micronutrients occurs when plant litter is returned to the soil and mineralized by the microbial biomass, thereby releasing the trace metals. The production and secretion of various chelating agents by plant roots and microorganisms promote the dissolution and weathering of minerals and facilitate the movement of micronutrients to roots. Inputs of most heavy metal elements are from anthropogenic sources. Human activities since the late 1800s have released at...

Biogeochemistry of technetium reduction in sediments

In addition to working with estuarine sediments that initially contained no background radioactivity, we have also worked extensively with sediments from (or representative of) several 'nuclear' sites. For example, microcosm experiments containing soil samples representative of the UKAEA site at Dounreay have been performed with unamended sediments, carbonate buffered sediments and microcosms amended with EDTA, a complexing ligand used in nuclear fuel cycle operations (Begg et al. 2007). During the development of anoxia mediated by indigenous microbial populations, Tc(VII)O4 was again removed from solution, during periods of microbial Fe(III) reduction when Fe(II) was growing into the microcosms. A pivotal role for biogenic Fe(II) in Tc(VII) reduction and precipitation (Fig. 11.2) was confirmed in microcosms which had been prereduced to the point that Fe(III) reduction dominated, and then sterilised by autoclaving. In these sterile Fe(III)-reducing sediments, the Tc-spike was removed...

Chemoheterotroph

Chelating agent A chemical that forms ring complexes with metal ions, especially heavy metal ions, for example, EDTA, which is use to treat heavy metal poisoning. Chelating agents may be used in biore-mediation to bind toxic heavy metals to soil particles, a process known as sequestration.

Physical Effects

In addition, certain trace metal nutrients, such as Fe, Cu, and Mn are bound into an organic matter-metal complex called a chelate. Many landscapers may be familiar with the use of chelated iron as a plant nutrient. Chelation can make some metal nutrients plant available in conditions where they normally would not be. In general, chelated nutrients are relatively plant available, but metals in a chelated form are very low in plant toxicity. Thus, organic matter additions can reduce the natural toxicity of some metals in soils, particularly Al and Mn, which are often problems in highly weathered soils. Figure 7 shows the structure of a metal-EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) chelate. The key to understanding the actions of humic substances in

Metal Mobilization

Metal mobilization from rocks, minerals, soil, and other substrates can be achieved by protonolysis, respiratory carbon dioxide resulting in carbonic acid formation, chelation by excreted metabolites and Fe(iii)-binding siderophores, and methylation which can result in volatilization. In addition, other excreted metabolites with metal-complexing properties, for example, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and organic acids, may also be involved. Fungal-derived car-boxylic acids can play an integral role in chemical attack of mineral surfaces and these provide a source ofprotons as well as a metal-chelating anion. Oxalic acid can act as a leaching agent for those metals that form soluble oxalate complexes, including Al and Fe. Solubilization phenomena can also have consequences for mobilization of metals from toxic metal containing minerals, for example, pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl), contaminated soil, and other solid wastes. Fungi can also mobilize metals and attack mineral surfaces by...

Disinfection

Although characterized as biological processes, secondary treatment systems also involve a complex array of chemical transformations (e.g., acid-base, redox, chelation, sorption) and physical transfers (e.g., gas-liquid exchange, heat transfer). Furthermore, secondary biological operations involve biochemical mechanisms that couple removal and production pathways. Contaminants are removed via catabolic oxidization and anabolic assimilation while producing a concentrated waste product called sludge or bioso-lids, containing residual particulate solids at concentrations on the order of 1 or higher (i.e., > 10,000 ppm).

Rhizosphere Food

Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria constitute another functionally (not necessarily taxonomically) related group that influences plant growth. However, this class does so without developing an endosymbiosis. In this class, the presence ofspecific bacterial species in the rhizo-sphere promotes the growth of the plant through associative dinitrogen fixation, nutrient mineralization and chelation, and protection from pathogens. Many dia-zotrophs are rhizobacteria and they can directly contribute available nitrogen to the rhizosphere. One study revealed that a possible mode of communication between rhizobac-teria and plants is through volatile metabolites produced by the rhizobacteria. When the plant was exposed to these compounds, it responded with increased growth rate.

Copper Toxicity

Chronic toxicity to Cu is rarely observed in humans, but liver disease has been observed in vineyard workers after years of applying copper-based fungicides to grapes. A genetic defect causing excessive Cu accumulation is known as 'Wilson's disease'. This defect causes accumulation of Cu in the liver and kidneys up to 30 times normal concentrations. Early signs include a brown ring around the cornea of the eye (Kaiser-Fleisher ring), anemia, jaundice, and swelling. If untreated it can be fatal however, it is readily treated using chelating agents to remove copper, dietary zinc supplementation to reduce copper absorption, and limiting copper in the diet. Wilson's disease is caused by an autosomal recessive. This means that both parents must carry at least one copy of the gene for the child to inherit it, and males and females are equally at risk.

Description

Soil flushing is an in-situ extraction of inorganic and organic compounds from soil, and is accomplished by passing extractant solvents through the soils using an injection and recirculation process. Solvents may include water, water-surfactant mixtures, acids, bases (for inorganics), chelating agents, oxidizing agents, or reducing agents. Soil washing consists of similar treatments, but the soil is excavated and treated at the surface in a soil washer.

Major Cycles

In the absence of biota, the rate and direction of chemical fluxes would be controlled solely by the physical and chemical factors determining exchanges between abiotic pools. Chemicals would be retained at a site only to the extent that chelation or concentration gradients restricted leaching or diffusion. Exposed nutrients would continue to move with wind or water (erosion). Biotic uptake and storage of chemical resources creates a biotic pool that reduces chemical storage in abiotic pools, altering rates of exchange among abiotic pools and restricting movement of nutrients across chemical and topographic gradients. For example, the uptake and storage of atmospheric CO2 by plants (including long-term storage in fossil biomass, i.e., coal, oil and gas) and the uptake and storage of calcium carbonate by marine animals (and deposition in marine sediments) control concentration gradients of CO2 available for exchange between the atmosphere and ocean...