Indeed one of the foremost gardens of the age was located where it was in order to escape the influence of the Roman Catholic church and its educational institutions. The Jardin des Plantes (Figure 3) in Paris was chartered in 1626 by Louis XIII on land a short way outside the wall encircling the city which put it beyond the reach of the Universite de Paris and its Faculte de medecine. For the next 150 years during the high tide of French exploration and colonization and throughout the French Enlightenment, Paris's botanic garden was the world's main center for plant collection and study as well as home to sometimes audacious research into other aspects of the natural world.
If these and other lessons have been learned, how can we apply them to populations both here and abroad as they face epidemics of STI, particularly HIV AIDS One population of real concern in our own country is minorities. Black women and men, in particular, are disproportionately burdened by HIV AIDS 50 percent of all Americans diagnosed with HIV AIDS in 2004 were African-Americans (CDC, 2006d). Some have suggested that the lesson of community may be usefully applied in this context. Advocates have turned to Black churches to help them spread information and understanding about the spread of AIDS in the Black community (Avery and Bashir, 2003). Organizations such as The Balm in Gilead, which sponsors The Black Church Week of Prayer for the Healing of AIDS (Avery and Bashir, 2003), have become an effective community voice in the fight against HIV AIDS.
Channels can be divided into bedrock, colluvial, and alluvial beds, and the latter further subdivided (at least for mountain drainages) into types determined by transitions in process domains and forcing by LW (Table 3.3). Additional descriptive classifications include whether a channel is straight, meandering, or braided (Leopold 1994). Flood-plain rivers have been characterized based on river planforms (Kellerhals and Church 1989). A classification scheme devised by Rosgen (1994, 1996) and widely used in river restoration recognizes seven major and 42 minor channel types based on channel pattern, width to depth ratio, sinuosity, and bed material size.
For roofing material and for detailing, but it has also been used for pipes, in Rome and Pompeii, for example. Danish churches have a total of 30 000-50 000 tons of lead covering their roofs. The paint pigment, lead white, was also very common until recently, when its toxic effect on humans was discovered. Useful lead resources are very limited.
In order for the computer to do its work, it must be programmed with algorithms. Algorithms are the syntax of computation. There are no semantics. Yes, every time this comes up someone points to attempts to get computers to deal with semantics using algorithms. That is not the problem. The problem is in the context dependence and self-reference. These things are inherently not reducible to the algorithmic, syntactic form computers need in order to function. This has been an idea much discussed and to my satisfaction, has been laid to rest. Again I refer the reader to Rosen's books for a more involved technical exposition of the failures of the Church-Turing thesis. In a nutshell it claims that anything in the real world must be computable and this just is not so.
In simple systems, power is generally concentrated in one or at the most a few decision makers. Political dictatorships, privately owned corporations, and the Roman Catholic Church are good examples of this sort of system. These systems are simple because there is very little interaction, if any, between the lines of command. Moreover, the effect of the central authority's decision upon the system is usually rather easy to trace.
Timber thus endures as long as it is not attacked by fire, insects or mould. The oldest-known timber building in existence is the Horiuji Temple in Japan, which was built of cypress in 607 AD. There are also completely intact timber beams in the 2000-year-old ruins of Pompeii. Norwegian stave churches are up to 900-years-old.
Another significant episode, perhaps the most important for the contemporary politics of hunger in Milwaukee, began in 1971 when three young African-American men went to Milwaukee's Cross Lutheran Church within the city's African-American core to talk to Rev. Joseph Ellwanger about implementing the Black Panther Party's Free Breakfast for Children Program in the basement of his church. While the church council ultimately voted against the measure, the Milwaukee Panthers and Rev. Ellwanger set into a motion a chain of events that led to the creation of what is today known as Milwaukee's Hunger Task Force HTF see http www.hungertaskforce.org ). HTF is Wisconsin's most important food bank and institutional advocate for hunger relief. Their success is largely due to their diverse partnerships that span through the city and state of Wisconsin. They have a small army of volunteers that organize food and fund drives in their workplaces, schools and churches. Funds donated by corporations,...
Slate was used for roofing in France as early as the thirteenth century on castles, palaces and churches. The material was later widely used in many parts of Europe, including on homes and more simple buildings. However, the use of slate materials has declined since the beginning of the twentieth century. Seen from an environmental and functional point of view, few materials can compete with slate. In highly exposed areas it can successfully be used for cladding on all exterior surfaces, probably as the most robust alternative. Slates for roofing and cladding are usually cut into small sizes by simple splitting and dividing slates for floor coverings are most often supplied as squares or rectangles.
Syrphid mimics were only so for human eyes, because they appeared to be categorized as extremely good mimics by pigeons. Against this interpretation is the overall pattern of mimicry obtained from the pigeon experiment, which matched the ordering of mimetic quality of the human eye. It may well be true that certain species have managed to exploit some feature of bird perception in order to appear more perfect than they do to us, but in general this is not the case, and hence it is not a solution to the problem of imperfect mimicry. I have already shown above that the fact that birds can see UV does not seem to be an important feature of syrphid predation, and therefore is an invalid interpretation of the two anomalous patterns (cf. Cuthill and Bennett, 1993 Church et al., 2004).
In many countries in Asia, otters are caught and marketed for food, or for medicine, and the African trade in 'bush meat' often involves otters. In Europe otters were also on the menu, and from Germany I was sent a (no doubt useful) recipe for Otter aux fines herbes (Kruuk 2002). One of the reasons for the Eurasian otter's popularity as food was the fact that it was classified as an honorary fish by the Roman Catholic Church, and could be eaten on fast days (Fridays and the six weeks before Easter). A splendid large painting by the Flemish painter Frans Snyders (1579-1657) in the Louvre shows a fish stall in the market, with an otter in pride of place.
I am now confirmed in the opinion that we have every year the same number of pairs invariably at least, the result of my inquiry has been exactly the same for a long time past. The number that I constantly find are eight pairs, about half of which reside in the church, and the rest in some of the lowest and meanest thatched cottages. Now, as these eight pairs - allowance being made for accidents - breed yearly eight pairs more, what becomes annually of this increase Lawton and May visited the village in 1983, and found major changes in the 200 years since White described it. It is unlikely that swifts had nested in the church tower for 50 years, and the thatched cottages had disappeared or had been covered with wire. Yet, the number of breeding pairs of swifts regularly to be found in the village was found to be 12. In view of the many changes that have taken place in the intervening centuries, this number is remarkably close to the eight pairs so consistently found by White.
Virtually all the model identifications made by the authors concerned were purely on the basis of visual similarity according to our own human perception, with no experimental or any other kind of evidence. Of course, in natural circumstances predators are required to deal with potential prey in a wide variety of circumstances, including as fast-moving evasive insects, and some potential prey represent a significant threat to well being. Identifications based upon our own perceptions may not correspond to the perceptual confusions between models and mimics generated by the eyes of predators, and this might distort our view of biological reality. One element that has been highlighted is the UV-component of colour patterns (Cuthill and Bennett, 1993 Church et al., 2004), invisible to mammalian predators, but possibly conspicuous to UV-sensitive birds or insects. A priori an unsuspected and different UV-component to the colour pattern is unlikely in Diptera, since their black colours are...
Crust-like 'metallophyte' lichens are species which colonise metalliferous habitats that support few, if any, higher plants. Many grow directly on minerals, including copper and uranium secondary phosphates and arsenates from which they may derive nutrition (McLean et al. 1998 Purvis et al. 2004 Haas & Purvis 2006). Distinctive lichen assemblages occur in upland regions of the UK and Europe on rocks in environments where copper sulphides predominate with associated basic secondary copper compounds often with significant calcium carbonate (CaCO3) creating a higher pH environment. A new community characterised by 'Copper Lichen' (Lecidea inops) was described from Cu-rich environments in Scandinavia and the UK (Purvis & Halls 1996). L. inops was originally described in 1874 from a Swedish copper mine. In the UK, this rare species is now included on Schedule 8 of the UK Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981). At Coniston Copper Mines in the English Lake District, it occurs on malachite...
This will focus primarily on alluvial channels, defined as those with bed sediments that are transported by the stream. Rearranging Equation 3.6, it is apparent that sediment transport is directly related to stream power (Qw S) and inversely related to grain size D50 (also referred to as sediment caliber). The interplay of a stream's capacity to transport sediment with the input of sediments and their caliber results in distinctive channel morphologies (Church 2002). Bank strength, which is influenced by sediment texture and vegetation (LW), and other channel constraints, exerts additional influence over channel shape (Figure 3.12). (Church 2002). The upland region is closely associated with hillslopes, from which upland streams receive sediments (Figure 3.13). Much of these sediments, but not the largest clasts, are transported downstream. In the middle section (the upland valley), where gradients are lower, sediments mobilized in upland channels may be...
School in this area of North Carolina that also complies with the 15 cfm ASHRAE standard. Since that time, a considerable number of mobile classrooms have been added to the campus, and Sunday church services within the school have increased but the energy costs, excluding the mobiles, have been maintained and actually have improved, ranging from 10 percent below the first-year (1995) usage to 0.73 (2003-2004). Performance in some classrooms has been reduced due to lack of maintenance and lack of use of the operable shades in those classrooms. Such maintenance details and staff operational practices have to be continually addressed.
The role of religion in biodiversity conservation is controversial. The Judeo-Christian tradition, predominant in the United States, has been held responsible by some people for the current environmental crisis. Controversy has centered on the interpretation of the relationship between God, humans, and nature as set out in Genesis 1 26-28. Here, God created humans in his own image and gave them dominion over other creatures. Environmentally concerned Christians and Jews have emphasized that dominion does not give humans license to abuse or destroy God's creation. Rather, humans have responsibility to care for this creation that God declared to be very good. Organized religion in the United States is taking environmental stewardship seriously, preaching on the environment in churches and synagogues, and training seminarians about the interface between religion and the environment. With links to Evangelical Environmental Network, Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life, United...
During the 'Dark Ages' after the fall of the Roman Empire, pozzolana techniques seem to have been forgotten. With very few exceptions, such as the Sophiysky Cathedral in Kiev (1000-1100), builders returned to slaked lime. Certain regions managed with clay for example, the stone churches of Greenland (1100-1400), but this was rather disappointing for future archaeologists when the roofs had disintegrated, the rain washed the clay away, leaving only a pile of stones.
Earth buildings have probably been used for over 10 000 years.The oldest sun-dried blocks found are from an area located in the upper Tigris basin, and date back to 7500BC.InagraveatGizain Egypt thereare traces of 5000-year-old cast earth blocks. English archaeologists have found similar 3000-year-old construction techniques in Pakistan. In the Old Testament, references are made to earth blocks made with straw added one of the Pharaohs gave orders that the children of Israel should not be given straw to make their blocks (Exodus, Ch. 5, v. 7). Because of its abundance, earth has been used for most of the 'architecture without architects'.There are many historical examples of pure earth towns, from Jericho toTimbuctoo, including temples, churches In both Peru and Chile, the Incas knewofthese building techniques longbeforethe Europeans came. The Mexican pueblo is the result of a well-developed earth block technique. Earth building can be found in most cultural periods in world history....
The earliest remains of stone buildings in Northern Europe are of longhouses with low walls of stones taken from beaches and fields. They were probably jointed with clay. Walls of stone with lime mortar began to appear around 1000 AD, with stone from local quarries. The stone buildings of this period were almost without exception castles and churches. It was not until the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that quarry stone was used for dwellings, and then mainly for foundations
Timber joint technology is particularly well-developed in countries like Japan, with a choice of some 600 joint types. In Scandinavia there is a tradition of log construction with 10 to 20 different jointing techniques. In some types of structural framework, such as in the stave churches, grooves are often used to fix external panelling. Nails are not necessary in this form of construction, and where the fastening is part and parcel of the whole structural system it is known as a 'macro-joint'.