Clean Up Ebooks Catalog
Perhaps the most exciting results reported in this volume involve the great progress made in relating ecosystem processes to environmental change and human efforts at environmental restoration. The chapter on the benthic communities of New York Harbor (Chapter 18) shows a clear recovery over decades in response to reductions of contaminant inputs. The clean up of Foundry Cove has removed the major source of metal pollution to the Hudson, which will decrease trophic transfer of metals through food webs (Chapter 30). Follow through on current plans to dredge PCB hotspots should have similar effects for this contaminant (Chapters 24, 25), the limiting factor for unfettered consumption of Hudson River finfish.
All of these rocks and minerals, are, or have been, essential to the economy, but mining of earth materials has created a number of environmental hazards ranging from the variety of excavations - gaping and hidden holes in the ground, hollowed-out mountains, and forgotten subsurface rooms - to waste products, such as mine tailings, slag dumps, acid waters, acid rain, and air pollution, as well as sediment clogged streams. It was not until the 1970s that State and Federal environmental agencies began to require mine restoration and clean up and closure plans. But by then, many mines were grandfathered or abandoned, went out of business, or were converted into landfills. Today, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation issues mining permits and monitors development, changing use, and closure plans.
Up pollution, as it were, after the fact. Such clean-up strategies can sometimes 'prevent' environmental emissions from affecting human health, and for this reason remain important within environmental management. But they are expensive ways of dealing with anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and generally fail to address the root causes of pollution. Preventive environmental management also distinguishes itself from end-of-pipe environmental management which attempts to 'prevent' the emission of specific pollutants into a particular environmental medium by placing some kind of filter or treatment between the emission and the environment. Again, the logic of prevention is to seek intervention at an earlier stage of the process in such a way that the polluting emission does not arise in the first place.
Nutrients among themselves and the storage compartments. Many traditional human engineering designs lead to the accumulation of waste materials that cannot be reused by the original process and can contaminate other processes. Ecological engineering designs seek to minimize waste production and to utilize wastes (material not related to the primary function of the design) as inputs for other processes. One example of this is using ecological processes to clean up waste products such as using wetlands to treat wastewater or phytoremediation to clean up soil contamination.
Water Use Connect the river to the city with the use and reuse of water. The pathways that water takes in its journey from neighborhood to river can illustrate conservation and clean up water prior to it reaching the river. These blueways can connect people, neighborhoods, river, and commerce.
Another important feature of the metabolic profile of industrial society is the overuse of the atmosphere as a sink. The main output category of disposals to domestic nature is CO2, caused by fossil fuel use, animal husbandry and waste incineration. Industrial societies were environmentally successful in cleaning up water in the 1960s and in reducing local toxic air emissions by introducing end-of-pipe technologies. Currently, the problem of increasing waste amounts is often met by waste incineration, resulting in a problem shift from one gateway to another (for example, from the soil to the air). Since outputs like CO2 cannot be reduced by waste treatment technologies, environmental problems shift from the local to the global level.
Estimates of cleanup costs for hazardous waste sites pla netwide are of the order of US 1 x 1012. These massive costs to clean up national defense and industrial facilities are effectively unsustainable and largely being deferred to later generations, especially at sites such as Chernobyl in the Ukraine. Waste disposal requirements of the twenti eth century were usually followed, but these practices were rarely based on environmental and other resource sustainability. In the future, any development and further use of xenobiotic compounds for better living must be accompanied by the development of sustainable bio technologies or other approaches to sustainably manage any wastes. Classical plant breeding and agroeconomic practices may be used to develop some sustainable waste management practices. But more likely the inventiveness of humankind in chemistry for better living will not be limited to xenobiotic compounds analogous to primary and secondary metabolites.
However, the seemingly simplistic notion of using plants and trees to clean up these contaminated sites actually involves a far more sophisticated process than what is apparent to the eye. As was the case with constructed wetlands, the visibly green above ground portions of these systems are but a part, and in some cases perhaps even a lesser part, of an integrated remediation scheme that encompasses a complex array of physical, chemical, and certainly biological treatment factors. The type, density, and nurturing of the plants and trees is important as well as the nature of the soils (e.g., soil type, conductivity, depth to groundwater, nutrient availability) and climate (e.g., rainfall frequency and duration, radiation, seasonal climate, windspeed, humidity) in which they are grown. Finally, the character, concentration, location, and form (e.g., whether it is sorbed, soluble, solid) of the contaminating materials are also important factors.
The pretreatment is summarized in Figure 8.8 and the subsequent chromatographic separation in Table 8.2. The scheme is an example of a method where the emphasis is placed on sample clean-up and separation combined with low-resolution mass spectrometry, rather than relying on high-resolution MS techniques. I wish to use this scheme as an exercise to test your understanding of the principles of sample pretreatment and the subsequent analytical determination. CLEAN-UP Add to multi-layer column - Anhydrous Na2SO4 Conc. H2SO4 on celite Silica gel Anhydrous H2SO4 Elute with petroleum ether HPLC clean-up using graphitized carbon column
Another novel approach being investigated at AIDL for dengue control is based upon knowledge of the biology and behavior of Ae. aegypti, and the environment in which dengue virus transmission most commonly occurs. In many areas in the Americas, Ae. aegypti is an archetypical endophagic and endophilic vector it feeds, rests, and if given the chance will also lay eggs inside the home. Prevention programs focus upon source reduction (larviciding) and environmental sanitation as noted above to attack the breeding sites of the vector. In addition, vector control programs respond to identification of dengue cases with space spraying for adult mosquitoes and source reduction and environmental sanitation in and around premises (PAHO 1994). Unfortunately, in today's throw-away society, breeding sites for Ae. aegypti are everywhere and accumulate rapidly following clean up campaigns. Since the vector is intimately associated with humans in indoor environments - (Reiter and Gubler 1997 Reiter et...
In general, phytoremediation is a niche waste management technique, normally applied to manage or clean up low levels of contaminants over large areas. Some cleanups may occur within months to a year or two, but typically 3-5 years are required and some difficult-to-manage sites may require decades to clean up. 'Phytostabilization', which does not seem to be sustainable, may be the only technically feasible option for large sites on which animal and human exposure can be controlled while innovative options are explored and developed. Most phytoremediation applications are limited to root zones and shallow waters, but occasionally exudates leach below root zones to generate reducing conditions and spur microbial dehalogenation 3-5 m (10-15 feet) deep. Transpiration can pull slow-moving groundwater plumes into the root zone, into wetland soils, and into plants to completely clean up some sites. Feasibility studies indicate plumes may be controlled to depths up to 15m (50 feet) by very...
Clean-up methods It is now generally accepted that there is no single clean-up method appropriate for all spills. Each spill is different and careful assessment is needed before deciding on a course of action (IPIECA, 1991 IMO IPIECA, 1996). The action taken must be capable of significantly reducing the recovery time of the shore to below that which natural weathering will achieve. Sometimes cleaning may be undertaken for economic and amenity reasons rather than for the wildlife alone. Even in recent incidents, clean-up operations have sometimes increased the impacts and extended the recovery time for marine populations. These have usually been where aggressive techniques such as the use of high-pressure hot water (e.g. Exxon Valdez spill) and excessive use of dispersants (e.g. Torrey Canyon) have been used. These methods often kill off key species that have survived the initial oiling. However, even attempts to use non-aggressive mechanical clean-up methods can be damaging when used...
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, better known as Superfund, became law to provide for liability, compensation, cleanup and emergency response for hazardous substances released into the environment and the cleanup of inactive hazardous waste disposal sites. CERCLA was intended to give the EPA authority and funds to clean up abandoned waste sites and to respond to emergencies related to hazardous waste.
The amount of wave surge affects the types of organisms found on the shore and their distribution. Wave surge and breaking waves tend to expand the extent of the intertidal zone and distribution of species by continually wetting the shore and allowing species to extend farther up the shore. Wave surge can also cause mobile animals to seek refuge and can limit the distribution of slow moving species, and the force of breaking waves can damage and sweep away organisms. Sand and debris such as logs swept up by the waves can scour organisms off the surface. In areas of low wave surge, sedimentation of sand and silt may bury organisms or clog gills and other filterfeeding structures.
The limits on generated quantities of hazardous waste are different for acute hazardous waste (P list). The limit is equal to the total of one kg of acute hazardous waste or a total of 100 kg of any residue or contaminated soil, waste, or other debris resulting from the clean-up of any spilled acute hazardous wastes.
Trees that will grow on heavy metal-enriched soil can be used for phyto-remediation, the use of green plants to clean-up contaminated soils or sediments (phyto - Greek for plant, remedium - Latin word meaning to correct or remove an evil). Suresh and Ravishankar (2004) highlight that this is brought about in two possible ways. The first is that the tree can facilitate microbial degradation or fixing of the metals in the rhizosphere (or even further out into the soil) - see Section 5.5.1. Secondly, trees can extract and store metals in their woody skeleton and leaves. This works especially well for metals like nickel, zinc, copper, lead, chromium and cadmium. Poplars have proved useful in that they can accumulate relatively high levels of metals, especially cadmium, zinc and aluminium. Laureysens et al. (2004) found lowest concentrations of the metals in the wood and highest concentrations usually in the leaves being shed in the autumn. Thus the wood could be used as biomass for energy...
Although these and other economic assessment techniques can be useful tools, they do not fully determine the value of biodiversity for a number of reasons. People's decisions about their so-called willingness to pay are based upon different preferences and constraints, ultimately affecting the final dollar value. People usually expect more compensation for the loss of something they already have (for example, clean air) than they are willing to pay to improve an existing situation (such as cleaning up polluted air) (Van Deveer and Pierce, 1998). In addition, the value of these assessments also depends upon how much and what kind of information people are given to help them make their determination. The quality of available information
Humic substances inhibit Taq DNA polymerase in the PCR, interfere with restriction enzyme digestion, and reduce transformation efficiency during cloning and DNA hybridization specificity. Humic substances are difficult to remove as they remain soluble under conditions similar to those of DNA hence, direct extraction of DNA may require an additional purification step to obtain DNA of sufficient purity for downstream assays. Use of polyvinylpyrrolidone may help to remove SOM from the cell preparations. Subsequent cesium chloride density gradient cen-trifugation yields DNA of high quality. Despite their effectiveness, these procedures are too labor intensive for use in large experiments. DNA extraction kits are available that include improved DNA clean-up steps and yield higher quality DNA extracts with fewer impurities that affect downstream DNA analyses.
Despite the abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and the correct pathways towards targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges (Zedler 2005). To reach an informed remediation decision, risk managers must integrate both scientific and non-scientific findings, to generate final soil remediation values that credibly support both the numerical values of the soil remediation used for a site and the acceptability of residual chemicals and their risks that will remain with the contaminated soil site following its cleanup (Belluck and al. 2006). From the theoretical predictions and their correspondence with the experimental data, it can be concluded that in a future management context, the decision-making should be structured according to a solid analysis of the site (the possible developmental pathways) and in relation to the justified conservation aims (the...
With regional and community participation, the county's urban and regional watershed plan maps out a vision for the future to establish and protect water-recharge areas, to provide clean water, and to develop the incremental steps toward smart growth. The design calls for future development in urban infill sites in safe and appropriate locations. In this design, sewage treatment plants are strategically located to recycle and reuse water and nutrients hydric neighborhood parks are designed to store, clean up, and distribute water, adding to potable recharge and community open space for the same tax dollars and development is stepped back from the region's network of canals to reverse the trespass on wetlands and improve flood protection.
Lichen-mineral interactions continue to be an exciting field and to stimulate research across diverse disciplines since the pioneering studies of Lounamaa in Finland 50 years ago (Lounamaa 1956 Haas & Purvis 2006 Purvis & Pawlik-Skowronska 2008). Understanding metal uptake and retention by lichens is important for environmental monitoring (including the survey of heavy-metal concentration in European mosses within the UNECE International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (http icpvegetation.ceh.ac.uk)), understanding global geochemical cycles and learning how organisms tolerate potentially toxic elements. Study of lichens in novel mineralogical and geochemical environments will yield new species and data concerning speciation, adaptation, tolerance and the fate of potential environmental contaminants. The possibility of controlling the properties of materials by tailoring their substructure at the nanometre scale is a current topic of...
The extraction process from solid samples will almost inevitably lead to the co-extraction of other compounds. This would include not only low-molecular-mass compounds (perhaps other pollutants), but also high-molecular-mass materials. The term 'lipid' is often used for such naturally occurring high-molecular-mass organic species which can be extracted into organic solvents. Clean-up is vital before chromatographic analysis is carried out. As well as the techniques discussed earlier in Chapter 4 (e.g. column chromatography and solid-phase extraction), additional techniques can be used for lipid removal. Gel permeation chromatography separates compounds according is their molecular size. The equipment used is either a classical low-pressure column or a preparative-scale high-pressure liquid chromatograph. The method can be used for a broad range of pollutants, regardless of any knowledge of their detailed chemical structures. You should contrast this with adsorption columns (see...
Sediments cover the sea floor except where the bottom current is strong enough to sweep away particles, or where the gradient is too steep for them to lodge. The scouring action of tidal currents may expose rocks beneath shallow water, and in deep water uncovered rock occurs on steep sides of submarine peaks or trenches.
Hazardous waste Solid waste that is a potential threat to public health, other living organisms, or the environment. There are usually national and international laws regulating the handling and disposal procedures for such wastes. The USA environmental protection agency also has a specific and detailed definition of such wastes for legal purposes, which it uses to determine which sites to clean up first.
Degraded water quality can limit access to tributary streams. Great progress has been made in the past several decades in reducing or eliminating municipal and industrial pollutants from Hudson River tributaries. Most of the fishes that enter tributaries do so in the springwhenwe canexpecthigher water volumes and reduction of pollution effects. There are still some Hudson River tributaries where we think water pollution limits fish use, however, so this task of cleaning up water is incomplete in the Hudson Valley. The worst case we observed was Mill Creek (Rensselaer - RKM 231.5).
Questionnaires were sent by mail to a representative sample of 5,000 Belgians who are responsible for the daily purchasing in their households 1,200 of the same questionnaires were distributed among consumers of forty Oxfam World Shops. In addition, thirty questionnaires were sent to twenty Oxfam World Shops in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, and to twenty Oxfam World Shops in the French-speaking part. A total of1,138 questionnaires were received 799 of the Belgian sample (response rate of 16 per cent) and 339 of the World Shop sample (response rate of 28 per cent). After cleaning up the data file (e.g. deleting respondents who were not responsible for the purchases in their household and deleting the data of respondents who did not fill in 10 per cent or more of the scale-questions) there were 615 respondents for the Belgian sample and 243 for the World Shop sample.
Because humankind has been highly inventive of xeno biotic molecules (e.g. DuPont's ''better living through chemistry'') and has unsustainably used concentrated energy to smelt metals and create other toxins, some genetic engineering of plants and microbes will be neces sary to achieve more sustainable waste management. Some xenobiotic substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and several others have been partially or com pletely banned because of increasing accumulations in the environment. The lack of sufficient analogs among the 200 000 primary and secondary plant metabolites are the reason for these accumulations, but some microbiological and botanical transformations of these persistent pollu tants do occur. Unfortunately, unmanaged ecosystems may not have all the transformation processes available in the same locations at the right times to achieve sustain able and safe degradation of persistent pollutants over the times scales...
In contrast to linking across scales, it is possible to unify ecology across types of ecological system that correspond to the main subdisciplines of ecology organism population community ecosystem landscape biome and biosphere. These types for ecological subdisciplines are explicitly not scale based, and so are not required to be assigned to level in the order given in the previous sentence. When scale is parsed away from type, the various approaches to ecology achieve a sharper depth of focus, offering clear relief between types of investigation. The subdisciplines of ecology are not scalar levels. If they are levels at all, they are type-based levels of organization, with the different types related to one another by asymmetric relationships made explicit in the definitions. As a separate issue, a typed level of organization itself contains scale-based hierarchies, as in fractal landscapes (see Landscape Ecology). In that scaled universe, the ecosystem modeling strategy may apply...
From a regulatory or clean-up perspective, a contamination is often defined as a concentration exceeding a particular value to which a level of risk has been assigned. Because risk varies with each metal and the associated exposure pathways, the definition of the degree of contamination is specific for each contaminant. Regulatory limits also differ depending on site-specific factors and specific land-use restrictions. In addition, the regulatory limits for metal concentrations in soil vary considerably according to State and even according to site (Raskin and Ensley 2000) and they frequently do not address categories that would be of a comparable level, although the limiting concentrations may be of the same order of magnitude. For example, there are criteria that have been defined for residential direct-contact soil clean-up according to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Risk. These are in the range of critical concentrations that are defined by the...
Prompted by the growing awareness of environmental issues in the Hudson River brought about by the Power Case, Congressman Richard Ottinger, along with several other prominent Democrats in the U.S. Congress, supported legislation in 1966 to create an interstate compact for a Hudson River Scenic Riverway. Not to be outdone by the Democrats and seeking to keep issues under State control, Rockefeller established his own state run entity, the Hudson River Valley Commission (HRVC), and pushed through the Pure Waters Bond Act aimed at cleaning up sewage throughout the state, with an emphasis on the Hudson River. In addition, Rockefeller stalled efforts to negotiate an interstate agreement with New Jersey for many years and the Congressional deadline for ratifying a compact expired in 1974 (Dunwell, 1991).
National governments have focused on building water-treatment facilities, controlling air pollutants from power plants, cleaning up toxic-waste sites, and trying to find new places to put their garbage. While much of this is necessary, such efforts cannot by themselves restore the planet's environmental health. Stabilizing the climate, for example, depends on restructuring national energy policies. Getting the brakes on population growth requires fundamental changes in social values and services. So far, only a handful of countries have undertaken such initiatives.
The role of science in public policy is not to make decisions per se, but to provide clear interpretations of existing information relevant to key issues, and to project possible consequences of societal actions. After reviewing the science of the issue, we conclude that the decision of whether and how to clean up the PCBs in the Upper Hudson River hinges on four key questions
This is normally performed by the addition of known amounts of standards to the sample before extraction (see Section 4.2 earlier). The method will compensate for sample losses in the clean-up stage, assuming that the losses of the standard are identical to those of the analyte, and will also ensure the determination is independent of any variations in the sensitivity of the spectrometer. Fully substituted 13C isotopically labelled compounds are often used.
A second standard is often added immediately before injection into the GC-MS system. The standard can be a 13C or 37Cl labelled compound. This is for quality control purposes. It allows determination of the recovery of the dioxin over the clean-up stage. A low recovery would give rise to concern over the accuracy of the final results. The second standard can also be used to provide an estimate of the sensitivity of the detector, which may vary over a period of time. This is an important control feature as most determinations involve operating the instrument close to the limit of detection. The analytical technique for PCDDs and PCDFs from solids includes extraction, followed by clean-up and concentration of the extract, and then GC-MS analysis. Why is an isotopic standard better than, say, a compound which is structurally similar to PCDDs and PCDFs and is not found in the analytical mixture
The common perception is that construction is using up non-renewable resources (energy, ores, ecological niches and so on) in a rapid and unsustainable fashion, and is polluting the environment disproportionately. For example, construction and demolition sites were labeled the most common source of industrial water pollution in England and Wales (UKNRA 1995). The industry is increasingly pressured by environmental stakeholders (public, government, academia and so on) to act in the interests of the environment, to remediate its contaminated sites, clean up production processes, reduce waste, use fewer materials and less energy, dispose of waste in a safe way, reduce hazardous emissions, re-use end-of-life products, recycle and so forth. Yet the construction industry has been lagging in environmental efforts such as environmentally conscious materials selection, design for disassembly, environmental performance measurement, process redesign, material re-use and recycling and product...
The causes of dry-season fires often are deliberate. At present a large number of fires are started to burn off' or clean up debris in order to prevent larger-scale and less controllable fires from destroying livestock, homes, and other assets. Purposeful fires also are set by weekend hunters and by geologists during mineral exploration to make areas more accessible. Traditional fires started by Aboriginal occupants were used in the past for hunting and improving access to traditional
(a) The pesticides will probably be present at the lower end of the trace-level range. Even after extraction and clean-up, a large number of compounds may still be present in the sample. A narrow-bore capillary column would give the required high resolution and detection sensitivity. A medium-polarity silicone polymer column would be a good initial choice.
So far, the main impetus for industrial water recycling has come from pollution control laws. Most of the world's wealthier countries now mandate that industries meet specific water quality standards before releasing wastewater into the environment. The most effective and economical way to comply with these requirements often is to treat and recycle water, thereby discharging less. Pollution control laws, therefore, not only have helped clean up rivers, lakes, and streams, they have promoted conservation and more efficient water use.
LLRW is produced from the clean-up of drainings and cooling water at nuclear power plants, manufacturing sites, and R&D laboratories where radioactive materials are handled. These low-activity wastes are usually treated to remove most radionuclides, then discharged to the environment. Low-activity wastes can be collected and mixed for a more uniform effluent or segregated to utilize specific treatments for the individual components. If the first approach is utilized, the usual wastewater treatments of flocculation, precipitation, absorption, filtration, and ion exchange can be adapted to radioactive wastes (Table 11.26.11). Provisions must be made for water discharging and for drying, compacting, and disposing of the solids produced. Presently, solids are sent to a LLRW disposal site. Radium removal, covered in the section on mining and milling, is a good example of a specific treatment process.
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