Water Quality as a Component of a Sustainable Water Supply

Ternes Abstract Pristine water resources for drinking water and other uses (e.g., land irrigation) are becoming increasingly scarce due to an ever-growing world population. To utilize available resources efficiently and rationally, water quality is as important as water quantity. To supply the world with sufficient water of a sufficient quality, a three-way approach is needed. First, water resources must be protected optimal agricultural and industrial practices...

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(e.g., poplar and rapeseed), a much higher water footprint was calculated than for a food crop such as maize. Another remarkable result was that biomass water footprints are on average 70-400 times higher than those of other primary energy carriers, except hydropower. A shift toward biomass energy will therefore have a large impact on the use of freshwater resources and will compete strongly with other water uses (Gerbens-Leenes et al. 2008). This is in line with the findings of Lloyd and...

Abstract

This chapter is based on extensive practical experience, research projects, and literature study. It addresses the key question related to metal production, supply, and recycling What is the loss for a metal along each step in its entire metal product life cycle, now and in the future, and how is this influenced by the social, economical, and technical factors present throughout the entire life cycle Answers are explored, providing guidance to optimize the life cycle and its subsystems in a...

Measuring and Modeling the Sustainability of Global Water Resources

Conventional water stress assessment is not sufficient for measuring the sustainability of world water resources. Instead, a set of projections performed by an integrated water resources model is necessary. Such a model must represent temporally varying natural and anthropogenic water cycles, along with the representation of the role of green water. Measurement of sustainability does not necessarily depend on water stress, i.e., the ratio between water withdrawal and water availability rather,...

Spatial Interactions and Land Use Conflict

As the world makes the transition from a fossil fuel and petroleum-based economy to one that uses biological products and processes for energy, materials, chemicals, and services, it is reasonable to expect that the effects of this transformation will appear throughout society and the environment. Competition between land uses will occur in ways that are not obvious or intuitive. Geographical displacement of some land uses or types of agriculture may occur and, in turn, create demographic...

Energy without Constraints

Understanding energy use is crucial if society is to make a transformation to more sustainable production and consumption patterns, since energy use patterns are key factors in climate change, air pollution, and the depletion of nonrenewable resources. Measuring the sustainability of energy use has many aspects that are closely interrelated e.g., production, conversion, supply, price, efficiency , and their relationships change over time, moving and removing the boundaries of the energy system...