• Water: Leakage of lubricants and coolants to water bodies is decreased when LLM vehicles are substituted to FHV vehicles, with beneficial implications for water quality.
• Nonrenewable resources: FHVs use 20% or more of the annual production of materials such as steel (Marcus and Kirsis 2003) and zinc (Graedel et al. 2005). LLMs probably would need less than half of this (see the weights in Table 24.2). In addition, if the average residence size per person would be smaller in dual-mode cities than in suburbia, the need for variety of construction materials (e.g., cement, copper) would decrease.
Thus, although the biggest resource gains from dual-mode cities would likely be in energy savings, such cities seem likely to make contributions to a more sustainable society in every category addressed above.
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