Info

Vehicle life (km)(b)

241,350

112,630

135,156

135,156

(a) The maximum power available to the wheels assumes no air conditioning or heating or optional accessories. The BPEVs have much less maximum power than, but the same performance as, the gas LLM because an electric motor, unlike a heat engine, can deliver maximum torque at very low rpm.

(b) It is assumed that battery-electric LLMs have a lower coefficient of drag and a longer life than does a comparable gasoline LLM.

(c) The fuel efficiency calculation does assume year-round average use of air conditioning and heating.

(a) The maximum power available to the wheels assumes no air conditioning or heating or optional accessories. The BPEVs have much less maximum power than, but the same performance as, the gas LLM because an electric motor, unlike a heat engine, can deliver maximum torque at very low rpm.

(b) It is assumed that battery-electric LLMs have a lower coefficient of drag and a longer life than does a comparable gasoline LLM.

(c) The fuel efficiency calculation does assume year-round average use of air conditioning and heating.

because the balance of the electric LLM costs roughly the same as the fossil fuel LLM.

Any LLM, whether gasoline or electric, will have lower running costs than an FHV. LLMs will have lower insurance costs because of the reduced all-around crash risks, lower registration costs because of their lesser value or lower weight, lower fuel-tax or road-tax costs because of their much lower weight (which reduces energy use and road damage), lower energy costs, and slightly lower maintenance, repair, and inspection costs. Overall, the battery electric LLM will have about the same life cycle cost as a fossil fuel LLM when gasoline sells for about 0.4 €/l, including taxes (Table 24.3).

Table 24.3 shows the private costs, and on this basis, fossil fuel and electric LLM are roughly comparable. It is, however interesting to compare options on a social-cost basis, which includes so-called "external costs" as well as private costs. Using the analysis of externalities presented in Delucchi (2000b), Delucchi and Lipman (2001) estimate the social value of the reductions in oil use, noise, water pollution, air pollution, and climate change provided by conventional electric FHVs compared with conventional fossil fuel FHVs. They find that these reductions are worth 0.002-0.016 € per km, with a best estimate of 0.005 €/km. In the case of electric LLMs versus fossil fuel LLMs, the best estimate of the value of these reductions would be a little lower—about €0.005/ km—because a fossil fuel LLM has significantly lower oil use and climate change costs (but probably not lower air pollution costs) than does a fossil fuel FHV, because of the relatively high fuel economy of a fossil fuel LLM. Thus,

Table 24.3 Retail and life cycle costs of full-feature LLMs.

Item Gas FHV Gas LLM BPEV-20 BPEV-30

Full retail cost of vehicle, 11,200 6,500 7,000 7,100

Item

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