3. The energy needed to desalinate and/or treat water. The estimates cover a very wide range.
4. The water needed for energy production.
5. The water needed for agriculture.
6. The specialty metals needed for solar energy and fuel cells.
It is worth recalling two of these examples to emphasize the degree of importance of the constraints that may result as a consequence of these linkages. In MacLean et al. (Chapter 11), a calculation of the energy required to extract metals from decreasing ore grade deposits suggests that meeting metal demands several decades hence could require 20-40% of the global energy generation capacity. Addressing a linkage in the other direction, Loschel et al. (Chapter 22) point out that if a substantial amount of energy is to be provided from fuel cells using platinum catalysts, this need alone would exceed anticipated platinum supply rates by perhaps 50%. The likely impossibility of either of these requirements being satisfied illustrates the significant challenges posed to sus-tainability by resource linkages. We anticipate that quantitative studies of other linkages, when performed, will reveal many similar challenges.
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Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.