et al.

3. The energy needed to desalinate and/or treat water. The estimates cover a very wide range.

4. The water needed for energy production.

5. The water needed for agriculture.

6. The specialty metals needed for solar energy and fuel cells.

7. The land needed for biofuel crop production.

It is worth recalling two of these examples to emphasize the degree of importance of the constraints that may result as a consequence of these linkages. In MacLean et al. (Chapter 11), a calculation of the energy required to extract metals from decreasing ore grade deposits suggests that meeting metal demands several decades hence could require 20-40% of the global energy generation capacity. Addressing a linkage in the other direction, Loschel et al. (Chapter 22) point out that if a substantial amount of energy is to be provided from fuel cells using platinum catalysts, this need alone would exceed anticipated platinum supply rates by perhaps 50%. The likely impossibility of either of these requirements being satisfied illustrates the significant challenges posed to sus-tainability by resource linkages. We anticipate that quantitative studies of other linkages, when performed, will reveal many similar challenges.




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