Thus far we have addressed energy services. However, future generations may not use energy services to create human well-being in the same way that current generations do. For example, suppose that more efficient urban designs are created that allow access to opportunity with less mobility. Consumption in the future may favor less energy-intensive goods and services. Thus, we need one more term, namely the ratio between human well-being and energy services. Again, there are many forms of energy services, but for the sake of simplicity we represent only one composite energy service. Let kt be the ratio of human well-being to energy service at time t. The equation for energy sustainability is, therefore,

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