Species that live in trees are generally expected to be good fliers, because the alternative is a long down-and-up surface trip when moving between limbs or trunks (Roff, 1990; Masaki and Shimizu, 1995). Fisk (1983) identified the cockroaches that fell during canopy fogging experiments conducted in rainforests in Panama and Costa Rica. Of the 25 species for which wing condition is known in both males and females, 23 (92%) are winged in both sexes, one (Nesomylacris asteria) has reduced tegmina and wings in both sexes, and one (Compsodes deliculatus) has winged males and apterous females (analyzed by LMR). Small blattellid species were the most abundant and diverse group collected during the study. These data support the notion that cockroaches that spend the day in trees are generally flight-capable. Further support comes from behavioral observations in Costa Rica. Flight between perches was noted in all winged species observed during their active period (Schal and Bell, 1986). Some cockroach species, however, spend their entire lives within specialized arboreal niches, are unlikely to be collected during canopy fogging, and are not necessarily volant. These include cockroaches that live under bark, in epiphytes, in arboreal litter, and in insect and bird nests. Of the 31 species of Brazilian cockroaches collected in bromeliads by Rocha e Silva Albuquerque and Lopes (1976), 55% were apterous or brachypterous.
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