Glossary

Accessory gland a secretory organ associated with the reproductive system.

Acrosome a cap-like structure at the anterior end of a sperm that produces enzymes aiding in egg penetration. Aerobic growing or occurring in the presence of oxygen. Alary pertaining to wings. Alate the winged stage of a species. Allogrooming grooming of one individual by another.

Alloparental care care of young dependents by individuals that are not their parents.

Anaerobic growing or occurring in the absence of oxygen.

Aphotic without sunlight of biologically significant intensity.

Aposematic possessing warning coloration.

Apterous without tegmina or wings.

Arolium (pl. arolia) an adhesive pad found at the tip of the tarsus, between the claws. Autogrooming grooming your own body.

Batesian mimicry the resemblance of a palatable or harmless species (the mimic) to an unpalatable or venomous species (the model) in order to deceive a predator. Bootstrap values a measure of the reliability of phylogenetic trees that are generated by cladis-tic methods.

Brachypterous having short or abbreviated tegmina and wings. Brood sac an internal pouch where eggs are incubated in female cockroaches. Brooding parental care where the females remain with newly hatched offspring for a short period of time, typically just until hardening of the neonate cuticle. Bursa in the female, a sac-like cavity that receives the spermatophore during copulation. Caudad toward the posterior, or tail end, of the body. Cellulase an enzyme capable of degrading cellulose. Cellulolytic causing the hydrolysis of cellulose.

Cellulose a complex carbohydrate that forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants.

Cephalic toward the anterior, or head end, of the body.

Cercus (pl. cerci) paired, usually multi-segmented, sensory appendages at the posterior end of the abdomen.

Chemotaxis the directed reaction of a motile organism toward (positive) or away from (negative) a chemical stimulus.

Chitin a polysaccharide constituent of arthropod cuticle.

Chitinase an enzyme capable of degrading chitin.

Circadian exhibiting 24-hr periodicity.

Clade a hypothesized monophyletic group of taxa sharing a closer common ancestry with one another than with members of any other clade.

Cladistic analysis a technique in which taxa are grouped based on the relative recency of common ancestry.

Clone the asexually derived offspring of a single partheno-genetic female.

Conglobulation the act of rolling up into a ball.

Consortium (pl. consortia) a group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.

Conspecific belonging to the same species.

Coprophagy the act of feeding on excrement.

Corpora allata a pair of small glandular structures, located immediately behind the brain, that produce juvenile hormone.

Coxa (pl. coxae) the basal segment of the leg.

Crepuscular active during twilight hours, dusk, and/or dawn.

Cryptic used of coloration and markings that allow an organism to blend with its surroundings.

Cuticle the non-cellular outer layer of the body wall of an arthropod.

Cycloalexy the formation of a rosette-shaped defensive aggregation.

Dealation wing removal.

Dehiscence the act of opening or splitting along a line of weakness.

Diapause a dormancy not immediately referable to adverse environmental conditions.

Dimorphism pertaining to a population or taxon having two, genetically determined, discontinuous morphological types. Sexual dimorphism: differing morphology between the males and females of a species.

Dipterocarp tree of the family Dipterocarpaceae.

Elytron (pl. elytra) a thickened, leathery, or horny front wing.

Embryogenesis the development of an embryo.

Emmet an ant (archaic).

Encapsulation the act of enclosing in a capsule.

Endemic native to, and restricted to, a particular geographic region.

Endophallus the inner eversible lining of the male intromit-tent organ.

Endosymbiont symbiosis in which one symbiont (the endo-symbiont) lives within the body of the other.

Epigean living above the soil surface.

Epiphyll an epiphyte growing on a leaf.

Epiphyte an organism growing on the surface of a plant.

Euplanta(e) a swelling on a tarsal segment that facilitates adhesion to the substrate during locomotion.

Eusociality the condition where members of a social group are integrated and cooperate in taking care of the young, with non-reproductive individuals assisting those that produce offspring, and with an overlap of different generations contributing to colony labor.

Exuvium (pl. exuvia) the cast skin of an arthropod.

Fossorial adapted for or used in burrowing or digging.

Fungistatic referring to the inhibition of fungal growth.

Geophagy the act of feeding on soil.

Gestation the period of development of an embryo, from conception to hatch or birth.

Gonopore the external opening of a reproductive organ.

Gravid carrying eggs or young; pregnant.

Gregarious tending to assemble actively into groups or clusters.

Guild a group of species having similar ecological resource requirements and foraging strategies.

Gynandromorphs individuals of mixed sex, having some parts male and some parts female.

Hemimetabolous a pattern of development characterized by gradual changes, without distinct separation into larval, pupal, and adult stages.

Hemocyte a blood cell.

Heterochrony an evolutionary change in the onset or timing of the development of a feature relative to the appearance or rate of development of the same feature during the ontogeny of an ancestor.

Heteroploidy an organism or cell having a chromosome number that is not an even multiple of the haploid chromosome number for that species.

Heterotrophic used of organisms unable to synthesize organic compounds from inorganic substrates.

Heterozygosity the condition of having two different alleles at a given locus of a chromosome pair.

Holometabolous complete metamorphosis, having well-defined larval, pupal, and adult stages.

Homoplasy resemblance due to parallelism or convergent evolution rather than common ancestry.

Hyaline transparent, colorless.

Hypogean living underground.

Hypopharyngeal bladders a specialization of the mouthparts in some desert cockroaches that allows them to utilize atmospheric water.

Hypoxia oxygen deficiency.

Imago the adult stage of an insect.

Inquiline a species that lives within the burrow, nest, or domicile of another species.

Intercoxal referring to the area between the coxae, or basal portion of the legs.

Intromittent referring to something that allows, permits, or forces entry.

Iteroparous having repeated reproductive cycles.

Keel the raised crest running along the dorsal midline of an ootheca.

Macropterous tegmina and/or wings that are fully developed or only slightly shortened.

Mallee a thicket of dwarf, multi-stemmed Australian euca-lypts.

Mechanoreceptor a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.

Metanotum the third dorsal division of the thorax.

Metathoracic referring to the third segment of the thorax.

Methanogens methane-producing bacteria.

Mimicry the close resemblance of one organism (the mimic) to another (the model) in order to deceive a third organism.

Monandrous (n. monandry) used of a female that mates with a single male.

Monophyletic referring to a group, including a common ancestor and all its descendents, derived from a single ancestral form.

Morphotype a collection of characteristics that determine the distinct physical appearance of an organism.

Mycetocyte a cell of the fat body specialized for housing bacterial symbionts.

Mycorrhiza(e) the symbiotic association of beneficial fungi with the small roots of some plants.

Myrmecophile an organism that spends part or all of its life-cycle inside of an ant nest.

Natal pertaining to birth.

Necrophagy feeding on corpses.

Neonates newborns.

Nuptial referring to the act or time of mating.

Ommatidium (pl. ommatidia) a single unit or visual section of a compound eye.

Omnivore (adj. omnivorous) feeding on a mixed diet of plant and animal material.

Ontogeny (adj. ontogenetic) the course of growth and development of an individual.

Oocyte a cell that produces eggs (ova) by meiotic division.

Oogenesis the formation, development, and maturation of female gametes.

Oviparity (adj. oviparous) producing an ootheca that is deposited in the external environment.

Ovoviviparity (adj. ovoviviparous) producing an ootheca that is withdrawn into the body and incubated in a brood sac; eggs have sufficient yolk to complete embryonic development. Typically, eggs hatch as the ootheca is expelled and active nymphs emerge.

Paedomorphosis retention of the juvenile characters of ancestral forms by the adults, or later ontogenetic stages, of their descendents.

Palp(s) a segmented, sensory appendage of the mouthparts.

Paraglossa(e) one of a pair of lobes at the tip of the "lower lip" (labium).

Paraphyletic a taxonomic group that does not include all the descendents of a common ancestor.

Paraproct(s) one of a pair of lobes bordering the anus.

Parthenogenesis the development of an individual from a female gamete that is not fertilized by a male gamete.

Phagocytosis the ingestion of solid particulate matter by a cell.

Phagostimulant anything that triggers feeding behavior.

Phallomere(s) sclerites of the male genitalia.

Phenology timing of the stages of the lifecycle, and its relation to weather and climate.

Phoresy (adj. phoretic) a symbiosis in which one organism is transported on the body of an individual of a different species.

Phylloplane the leaf surface, including the plants, algae, fungi, etc. associated with it.

Polyandrous (n. polyandry) used of a female that mates with more than one male.

Polyphenism the condition of having discontinuous pheno-types that lack genetic fixation.

Proctodeal referring to the hindgut.

Pronotum the first dorsal division of the thorax.

Protibiae the tibiae of the first set of legs.

Proventriculus the gizzard.

Pseudopenis an intromittent type male genital appendage that does not function to transfer sperm.

Pterothoracic referring to the wing-bearing segments of the thorax.

Quiescence a resting phase that occurs in direct response to deleterious physical conditions; it is terminated when conditions improve.

Rhizosphere the zone surrounding plant roots.

Sclerite a hardened plate of the exoskeleton bounded by sutures or membranous areas.

Sclerotized hardened.

Semelparous a life history where an organism reproduces just once in its lifetime.

Semi-voltine used of taxa that require 2 yr to develop to the adult stage of the lifecycle.

Seta(e) a bristle.

Spermatheca a receptacle for sperm storage in females.

Spermatophore a capsule containing sperm that is transferred from the male to the female during copulation.

Spiracle an external opening of the tracheal system; breathing pore.

Stadium the period between molts in a developing arthropod.

Sternal gland a gland on the ventral surface of the abdomen.

Stigmatic referring to the stigma, the upper end of the pistil in a flower.

Stomodeal referring to the foregut.

Subgenital plate a plate-like sclerite that underlies the genitalia.

Subsocial the condition in which one or both parents care for their own young.

Tarsus (pl. tarsi) the leg segment distally adjacent to the tibia; may be subdivided into segments (tarsomeres).

Taxon (pl. taxa) any group of organisms, populations, or taxonomic groups considered to be sufficiently distinct from other such groups as to be treated as a separate unit.

Tegmen (pl. tegmina) the thickened or leathery front wing of cockroaches and other orthopteroid insects.

Teneral a term applied to a recently molted, pale, soft-bodied arthropod.

Tergal glands glands on the dorsal surface of the abdomen; usually referring to those on males that entice females into position for copulatory engagement.

Tergite a sclerite of the dorsal surface of the abdomen.

Termitophile an organism that spends part or all of its life-cycle inside of a termite nest.

Thigmotaxis (adj. thigmotactic) a directed response of a motile organism to continuous contact with a solid surface.

Thorax the body region, located behind the head, which bears the legs and wings.

Tibia (pl. tibiae) the fourth segment of the leg, between the femur and the tarsus.

Trachea(e) a tube of the respiratory system.

Transovarial transmission the transmission of microorganisms between generations of hosts via the eggs.

Trichomes hair-like structures found on plant epidermis.

Troglomorphic having the distinct physical characteristics of an organism adapted to subterranean life.

Trophallaxis mutual or unilateral exchange of food between individuals.

Univoltine having one brood or generation per year.

Uric acid end product of nitrogen metabolism.

Uricolytic capable of breaking down uric acid.

Uricose glands male accessory glands that store and excrete uric acid.

Urocyte a cell in the fat body specialized for the storage of uric acid.

Vitellogenin yolk protein.

Viviparity (adj. viviparous) producing an ootheca that is withdrawn into the body and incubated in a brood sac. Eggs lack sufficient yolk to complete development, embryos rely on secretions from the brood sac walls for nourishment. Active nymphs emerge from the female.

Volant capable of flying.

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