Kin recognition is well developed in those cockroach species in which it has been sought. Juveniles of B. ger-
manica are preferentially attracted to the odor of their own population or strain (Rivault and Cloarec, 1998). Paratemnopteryx couloniana females recognize their sisters (Gorton, 1979), first instars of Byrsotria fumigata recognize and orient to their own mother (Liechti and Bell, 1975), and juveniles of Rhyparobia maderae prefer to aggregate with siblings over non-siblings, a tendency most pronounced in first instars (Evans and Breed, 1984). Nymphs of Salganea taiwanensis up to the fifth instar are capable of distinguishing their parents from conspecific pairs (T. Matsumoto and Y. Obata,pers. comm. to CAN). Like termites (reviewed by Vauchot et al., 1998), nonvolatile pheromones in the cuticular hydrocarbons can and do transfer among individuals via physical contact in cockroach aggregations (Roth and Willis, 1952a; Ever-aerts et al., 1997; discussed in Chapter 3).
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