Index

abundance patterns 57 Acanthogorgia 240 Acanthogorgiidae 238-40 Achelata (spiny and slippery lobsters) 269-71 Acroporidae 215, 216, 217, 218 Australian Coral Reef Society (ACRS) 369 Actiniaria (sea anemones) 199, 201-5 diversity 202 ecology 202 external anatomy 202 as hosts and guests 205 internal anatomy 202 life history 202 preservation and study 204-5 Alcyonacea (soft corals) 223, 229-44 Alcyoniidae 223, 224, 230-2, 233, 234 algae crustose 146, 147 blue-green 67, 145, 146, 153, 318 brown 145, 146, 151-2, 334, 335 drift 36

endolithic 77-9, 81, 82-3, 145, 152, 154 green 57, 145, 146, 148, 152-3 red 57, 74, 75, 77, 146, 149-51, 154, 276, 335 see also macroalgae algal turfs 104, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152, 153, 251, 302 amphipods 266 Annella 238, 239 anomurans 271-2 Antipatharia (black corals) 199, 208 apex predator 69 Aplousobranchia 309, 323-4 Appendicularia 309, 310, 311 Ascidiacea 309, 311-22, 323 ascidians (sea squirts) 311-22 ascidian test 314-15 biogeography 315-17

collection, narcotisation, fixation, preservation 318-20 equipment 322 evolution 318

examination of specimens 320-2 habits and interaction with environment

312-14 identification 322 reproduction and larvae 311-12 symbioses 317-18 aspidochirotids 300-1

assemblage patterns, seabed environments 52-7 Astacidea (clawed lobster and freshwater crayfish) 271 asteroids 298-300

Australian Environmental Protection and Biodiversity

Conservation (EPBC) 363 Australian pelican (Pelicanus conspicillatus) 365

balers (Heron Island volutes) 283, 284, 288 barnacles 263-5

bartailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) 367 basket snails (Cancellariidae) 284 bathymetry 28, 33 benthic food chain 129 beach stone-curlew (Esacus neglectus) 365 beche-de-mer species 301 benthic jellyfishes 189 biodiversity 122-7

bioerosion 5, 18, 77, 78, 80-2, 83-4, 87, 92, 102, 154, 171, 175,

182, 304 biological erosion 75-83 biological patterns, seabed environments 53-7 biogeographical patterns 125 biophysical relationships 52-7 bioturbation 54, 56, 250, 301 birds 359-70

and climate change 366

distribution and abundance on GBR 359-65

foraging locations for wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus) 364 foraging modes 363 life-history characteristics 359 non-marine 365-7 threats to seabirds 364 time of breeding 363-4 black corals (Antipatharia) 199, 208 black-naped tern (Sterna sumatranal) 360, 361 blue coral (Helioporacea) 223, 228 blue-green algae 67, 145, 146, 153, 318 blue holes 13

blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) 287 blue swimming crab (Portunus armatus) 274 boobies 359

box jellyfishes (cubozoan) 189 Brachyura 272-4

brahminy kite (Haliastur indus) 365 brain corals 215-16 Briareidae 237, 238 Briareum 224, 237, 238 Bolbometopon muricatum 79 brown algae 145, 146, 151-2, 334, 335 brown booby (Sula leucogaster) 360, 361 brown stem corals 218 bryozoans 290-5

collecting 292-3 growth forms 294-5 importance on coral reefs 293-5 reproduction 292 taxonomic diversity of GBR 292-3 buff-banded rail (Gallirallus philippensis) 365, 366 Bunker-Capricorn Group 15 buoyancy-driven flows 34-6 Bushy Island 15

calcification 60, 70, 74-5, 80, 81, 101-2, 110, 111, 151, 154 human influences on 83-4 measuring 76 Capnella 233, 236

Capricorn white-eye (Zosterops lateralis chlorocephalus) 366 carbonate ions, concentration of 60, 74, 75, 76,

101-2, 104 carideans (shrimps) 269 cephalopods 267, 276, 277, 282-3, 286-7 Ceriantharia (tube anemones) 199, 208 chaetognaths 68, 137, 139

China-Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (CAMBA) 363 Cirripedia (barnacles) 263-5 Clavulariidae 229-30 clawed lobster 271

climate change 1, 15, 18, 21, 24, 85, 87, 89-90, 95-9, 103-7, 112, 120, 123, 127, 140, 154, 158, 173, 195, 209, 364

challenge of 106-7 genetic adaptation to 103-4

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 97 and plankton 143 projections of change 98 and seabirds on GBR 366 clitellates 246, 254-6 coastal influences 52 coastal dolphins 350, 351, 353-4, 356, 357 comb jellies 189, 197, 198

see also ctenophora coenobitids 271

comma shrimps (Cumacea) 264, 265 community participation GBRMPA 119-20 cone snails (Conus geographus) 280, 284, 288 connectivity 37-8

continental shelf 7, 9, 11, 18, 21-2, 28, 34, 37, 44, 46, 49, 51, 53,

55, 88, 129, 142, 143, 209, 224, 232, 355 convergence zones 28, 33, 34, 36, 135, 142 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of

Wild Animals 363 copepods 68, 69, 129-31, 132, 133, 137, 139-40, 142, 262, 263 coral bleaching 5, 29, 31, 46, 60, 65, 83, 85, 89-90, 92, 93, 99-101, 104, 105, 106, 154, 161, 182, 215, 225, 347, 366 and disease 99-102 coral harvesting 87, 90-1 coral islands 15

coral reefs 5-6, 42

climate change 88-90, 103-7 bryozoans, importance on 293-5 development, environmental factors 59-62 ecosystems, energy flow through 68-72 fish habitats 329 future of 95-107 greenhouse effect 95-9, 102-3 herbivory 68, 87, 146, 147, 154 human impact 85-93 human influences 57-8

major coral families and their significance 215-21 ocean acidification 26, 60, 74, 75, 83, 90, 101-2, 369 overfishing 87-8 primary productivity 62-8 ramifications 104-6 recreational impacts 91-2 restoration 86 runoff from land 88-9 sea level 102-3 storm intensity 102-3 see also habitats, coral reef; hard corals Coral Sea 29-33 coral skeletal records 111 Corallimorpharia (jewel anemones) 199, 207-8 crabs 267, 272-4

crested tern (Sterna bergii) 359, 360 crinoids 305-6

cross shelf gradients 9, 11, 22, 23, 44, 49-50, 66, 81, 89, 126,

148, 133, 330, 331 crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) 33, 38, 42, 46,

83, 84, 89, 111, 154, 215, 280, 296, 298, 331 crustaceans 262-74

Achelata (spiny and slippery lobsters) 269-71 amphipods 266 anomurans 271-2

Astacidea (clawed lobster and freshwater crayfish) 271

barnacles 263-5

Brachyura 272-4

Cirripedia (barnacles) 263-5

carideans (shrimps) 269

comma shrimps (Cumacea) 264, 265

copepods 263

cumaceans 265

dendrobranchiates (prawns) 267-9

isopods 265-6

mysidaceans 265

ostracods 263

peracarids 265

pill bugs 265-6

pycnogonids 274

stenopodideans (coral shrimps) 269 stomatopods 266-7 tanaids 265 thalassinideans 271

crustose algae 146, 147 Ctenocella 242, 243 Ctenophora see jellyfishes Cubozoa 139, 189, 191-2, 194, 197 cumaceans 265 currents in the Coral Sea 29-33 cyanobacteria 67, 68, 133, 135, 145, 146, 154, 173, 184 cyclones 6, 15, 28, 33, 34, 38, 46, 51, 52, 92, 93, 103, 123, 132, 133, 154, 207, 289, 331

decapods 263, 265, 266, 267, 269, 271, 272 dendrobranchiates (prawns) 267-9 Dendronephthya 224, 233, 235 deposit feeders 83, 250, 286, 300, 301, 304 diatoms 63, 133, 134, 136, 137-8, 263, 285 Diadema setosum 82 digenetic trematodes 258

dinoflagellates 63, 70, 72, 74, 100, 133, 136-7, 199, 201, 207,

209, 214, 285 doliolids 310-11

dolphins 350, 351, 353-4, 356, 357 dove snails (Columbellidae) 284 drift algae 36

dugong (Dugong dugon) 350, 354, 355-8

dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) 354-5

East Australian Current (EAC) 31, 33, 34, 36, 52, 146 eastern reef egret (Egretta sacra) 365 echinoderms 296-306 biodiversity 298-306 life history 296-8 reproduction 296-8 Echinostrephus 82 Echiura 260 eddies 34 Efflatounaria 237

EI NiƱo Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 31-3, 100

Ellisella 242, 243

Ellisellidae 226, 242, 243, 244

endosymbiosis 70

energy flow 59

environmental factors coral reef development 59-62 erosion human influences on 83-4 physical and biological 75-83 Euplexaura 240, 241

Faviidae 215-16, 217

fish 327-42

depth distributions of reef 340-2

diversity 327-9

evolutionary relationships in foraging and feeding patterns 335, 336 functionally important groups on GBR 332-7 future for reef fish research on GBR 340-2 GBR 329-32, 337-40 grazing 332-5 habitats, coral reefs as 329 identification of GBR 328 predatory guilds of reef 335-7 fish lice 265-6 fish stock protection 88 flatworms 246, 258-9 food chain 86, 87, 142, 143, 153, 276, 334 benthic 129 pelagic 129, 132-3 foraminifera 24, 60, 63, 74, 78, 132, 227, 279, 282 freshwater crayfish 271 freshwater input 38 frigatebirds 359

fringing reefs 5, 9-11, 38, 171, 215, 218, 337, 338 Fungiidae 216, 218, 219

gastropods 53, 54, 57, 68, 77, 215, 274, 277, 278, 279, 283,

284-5, 286, 287 genetic adaptation to climate change 103-4 geomorphological zonation 6-7 geophysical context and processes 51-2 ghost shrimps (Trypaea australiensis) 271 giant clam (Tridacna derasa) 60, 206, 276, 282, 285 global environmental change 20-4, 26-7 global sea level changes 18-20 global warming 33, 38, 74, 83, 89-90, 104, 161, 369 golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria) 367 golf ball corals 218 Gorgoniidae 240-2 Great Barrier Reef bryozoans, taxonomic diversity of 292-3 community participation 119-20 dangerous molluscs 287-8 distribution and abundance of birds 359-65 establishment 9 evolution 9-15, 17

families and genera of hard corals on 216 fish 329-42 geomorphology 15-16 global environmental change 20-4 links between environments 2 locations 8

oceanography and global warming 33

octocoral genera 225-7

origins 18

reef growth 18-20

reef types 9-15

Reef Water Quality Protection Plan (RWQPP) 112

Seabed Biodiversity Project 51, 52, 127, 370 seabirds and climate change 366 size 1, 7-9

terrestrial runoff 108-12

tourism 1, 81, 85, 91, 93, 105, 106, 114-15, 119-20, 345, 355 Water Quality Action Plan 112 World Heritage Area 7 zoning 50, 58, 114-15, 117-20, 122, 215, 369 Great Barrier Reef Biodiversity Project 51, 52, 370 Great Barrier Reef Catchment Area (GBRCA) 108-9, 112, 119

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMPA) 1, 2, 7, 114-20, 289, 352, 369

community participation 119-20 management 115-17 zoning 117-18 greater sand plover (Charadrius leschenaultii) 367 green algae 57, 145, 146, 148, 152-3 Green Island 15

grey-tailed tattler (Tringa brevipes) 367 greenhouse effect 95-9, 102-3

habitat, seabed human influences 57-8 habitat formers 42-3 habitat variation 49-50 habitats, coral reefs 40-2 fish 329

seascapes 40, 41, 44 spatial variability 44-6 sponges 173-83 temporal changes 46-9 Halimeda 5, 9, 11, 13, 34, 56, 57, 146, 147, 148, 149, 153, 154,

178, 224 hard corals 209-21 anatomy 209-10 classification 210-12 ecology 212-15

families and genera on GBR 216 identification 210-12 life history 212-15 major coral families 215-21 mass spawning phenomenon 214 preservation 221 significance in coral reefs 215-21 Helioporacea (blue coral) 223, 228 herbivory and coral reefs 68, 87, 146, 147, 154 hermit crabs (Dardanus megistos) 271 Holocene 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 62 holothurians 250, 252, 274 Holothuroidea 296, 299, 300-2, 303 Huon Peninsula 18, 20, 21, 24, 26 human impact 85-93 long term trends 92-3 recreational impacts 91-2 types of 87-93

human influences calcification 83-4 erosion 83-4 seabed habitat 57-8 humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) 351-4 hydroid jellyfishes 189

inshore reefs 10, 33, 87, 126, 146, 147, 149, 151, 161, 224, 227, 331, 338

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 97 Irukandji syndrome 139, 188, 189, 191, 195, 197 islands 10, 11, 23, 60, 62, 87, 167, 212, 215, 224, 330, 337, 340, 343, 349, 365, 367 coral 15 wooded 11, 15!sis 244 Isididae 242-4 isopods 265-6

Japan-Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA) 363 jellyfishes (Pelagic Cnidaria) 188-98 benthic 189

biology and ecology 191-6 box 189 collecting 197 hydroid 189 identification 197-8

Irukandji syndrome 139, 188, 189, 191, 195, 197 predation and defence 196-7 preservation 197 taxonomic overview 189-91 true 189 jets 34-6

jewel anemones (Corallimorpharia) 199, 207-8 Junceella 242, 244

larvaceans 28, 69, 131, 134, 137, 139, 140, 142, 143, 308, 309,

310, 311

see also Appendicularia Lemnalia 231, 233, 235 lesser sand plover (Charadrius mongolus) 367 light quality and wavelength 5, 6, 7, 47, 55, 60-6, 68, 71, 75, 88, 100, 110, 137, 143, 173, 175, 178, 224, 225, 228, 232, 255,

311, 317

Lobophytum 225, 231-2, 234 lobster clawed 271

spiny and slipper (Achelata) 267, 269 squat (Allogalathea elegans) 271, 272 longitudinal gradients 330, 331 lucine clams 286

macroalgae 145-54 bioerosion 154

common genera 149

construction 153-4

contribution to primary production 153

diversity of GBR 145-53

ecological roles 153-4

facilitation of coral settlement 154

functional group diversity 146-7

identification 149

nitrogen fixation 153

nutrient cycling 153

reproduction 153

roles in reef degradation 154

seasonality 149

spatial and temporal distribution 147-9 taxonomic diversity and classification 145-6 mammals, marine 350-8 mangroves 156, 158-66

functional morphology 158-9 GBR catchment coast 163-7 overview 158 role in ecosystems 156-8 role of 159-63 taxonomy 158-9 mantis shrimps 266, 268 marine mammals 350-8 marine snow 37, 38, 111, 129-32 marine yabbies 271 marron (Cherax) 271 masked booby (Sula dactylatra) 360, 361 medusae 189, 196 meroplankton 129 Melithaea 238, 239 mid-shelf reefs 11 Milankovitch cycles 18, 21 molluscs 276-89 biogeography 283 body plan 277-83 feeding 283-6 future research 288-9 GBR (dangerous) 287-8 reproduction 286-7 Moreton Bay 22-3 mud 38, 345

mud crabs (Scylla serrata) 267, 272, 274 mud shrimps (Strahlaxius glytocercus) 271 muddy substrates 345 mushroom corals (Fungiidae) 218 Mussidae 216, 218-21 mysidaceans 265 myzostomes 246, 256

Naso (unicorn fishes) 335 nearshore reefs 9-11 nematodes 246, 260, 288 nemerteans 246, 260 Nephthea 233, 234

Nephtheidae 224, 232-4, 235, 236 nitrogen cycle 66-8, 137 northern deltaic reefs 13 northern detached reefs 11

No-Take Areas (NTAs) (fish stock protection) 88, 93, 114, 117, 118, 119

ocean acidification 26, 60, 74, 75, 83, 90, 101-2, 369

oceanic influences 52

oceanography broad scale patterns on the GBR 28-38 influence on distribution patterns of plankton 142-3 and reefs 28-38 octocorals 222-44

biology and ecology 223-5

colonies, techniques used to collect, preserve and investigate 226-7 Helioporacea (blue coral) 223, 228 major genera of GBR 225-7 Pennatulacea (sea pens) 222, 223, 227-8 ophiuroids 302-3 opposum shrimps 265 Organ-pipe coral (Tubipora) 230, 231 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) 365 ostracods 263 outer shelf reefs 11-12 overfishing 87-8

palaeoecological responses in ancient reefs 24-6 parrotfishes (Scaridae) 5, 46, 47, 69, 77, 78, 79, 80, 86, 329,

330, 331, 332-5 particle feeding and coral reefs 68-70 Pelagic Cnidaria see jellyfishes pelagic food chains 132-3 Pennatulacea (sea pens) 222, 223, 227-8 peracarids 265 Phlebobranchia 309, 324 phoronids 260-1

photosynthesis 5, 60, 63-6, 70-2, 110, 129, 132, 145, 153, 184,

224, 225, 285 physical erosion 75-83 physical factors, seabed environments 53-7 pied (Torresian) imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor) 365 pill bugs 265-6 plankton 129-43

and climate change 143 demersal plankton 142 distribution patterns 142-3

fine mesh samples (organisms 50-100 microns) 136-7

influence of oceanography 142-3

large plankton (organisms 1 mm+) 139-41

links between environments and migrations 141-2

links with substratum 141-2

marine snow and other structures 129-32

net plankton (organisms 0.1-1.00 mm) 137-8

pelagic food chains 132-3

size hierarchy of organisms 133-41

vertical migration 142

water bottle samples (organisms <50 microns) 134-6 plant-animal symbiosis and coral reefs 70-2 platyhelminthes 246, 256-9 Plectropomus 341

Pleistocene 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18-21, 24, 26, 283, 349 Plexauridae 228, 238, 240, 241 Pocilloporidae 216, 218, 219 polychaetes 77, 80, 246-54, 256, 276, 284, 370 asexual reproduction 254, 255 mass spawning 255 Pompey Complex 13 porcelain crabs 271, 272 Poritidae 216, 218, 219 prawns 267-9 predation and coral reefs 68 Princess Charlotte Bay 112, 269, 343 productivity 15, 36, 46, 62-8, 72, 132, 146, 153, 171, 173, 276,

289, 301, 328, 329, 364 pycnogonids 274

Queensland Plateau 23, 330 R

recreational impacts on coral reefs 91-2

red algae 57, 74, 75, 77, 146, 149-51, 154, 276, 335

red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis) 367

red-tailed tropicbird (Phaeton rubricauda) 361

reef bioeroders (sponges as 'parasites') 178-82

reef degradation, role of macroalgae 154

reef growth 18-20

reef-building corals see hard corals

Reef Water Quality Protection Plan (RWQPP) 112

reefs fringing 5, 9-11, 38, 171, 215, 218, 337, 338 inshore 10, 33, 87, 126, 146, 147, 149, 151, 161, 224, 227, 331, 338

mid-shelf 11

nearshore 9-11

northern deltaic 13

northern detached 11

and oceanography 28-38

337, 355 rocky 42 senile 11, 14, 15

submerged on the central GBR 13 Swain 13-15

see also coral reefs; Great Barrier Reef reptiles 343-9

marine, GBR 347-8 sea snakes 345-7 sea turtles 344, 343-5 terrestrial 349

restoration, coral reef 86

ribbon reefs 6, 9, 13, 14, 22, 34, 52, 54, 57, 172, 283,

337, 355 river discharges 109 rocky reefs 42 Rumphella 242 rubble zone 6

runoff from land 88-9, 108-12 S

salinity 5 salps 310-11 sandhoppers 266

scampi (Metanephrops, Nephropsis and

Thaumastochelopsis) 271 scuds 266 scyphozoans 190

sea anemones (Actiniaria) 199, 201-5 diversity 202 ecology 202 external anatomy 202 as hosts and guests 205 internal anatomy 202 life history 202 preservation and study 204-5 sea butterflies (Cavoliniidae and Limacinidae) 285, 286

sea cucumbers 57, 69, 87, 186, 296, 297, 298, 301 sea level 9, 10-11, 13, 15, 17, 18-24, 26, 34, 36, 83, 88, 89,

102-3, 158, 289, 330, 331-2, 338, 340, 349 sea pens (Pennatulacea) 222, 223, 227-8 sea slugs (Pleurobranchidae) 57 sea snakes 344, 345-7 sea squirts 309, 311-22 sea turtles 343-5 sea urchins 303 seabed environments abundance patterns 57 assemblage patterns 52-7 biophysical relationships 52-7 coastal influences 52 geophysical context and processes 51-2 human influences 57-8 oceanic influences 52 seabirds see birds

Seabed Biodiversity Project 51, 52, 127, 370 seagrasses 156, 166-9

beds and macrograzers 167 GBR 168-9

role in ecosystems 156-8 seascape, see habitats, seascapes seed shrimps (ostracods) 263 senile reefs 11, 14, 15 shrimps 269 Sinularia 223, 224, 231, 232 Siphonophores 140-1, 197 sipunculans 77, 79, 80, 246, 259, 260, 284

skeleton shrimps 266 slaters 265-6

soft corals (Alcyonacea) 223, 229-44

sooty oyster catcher (Haematopus fuliginosus) 365

sooty tern (Sterna fuscata) 359, 360

South Equatorial Current 29-31

Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) 29

spiky brain corals (Mussidae) 218-21

sponge farming 185

sponges (Porifera) 171-86

body plans and classification 182-3 chemical defence 175 deeper lagoon 178 defence 186

distribution and abundance 172-3

diversity 171-2

feeding 184-6

identification 186

inter-reef 178

life history 183-4

overview 171

predation 186

preservation 186

reef bioeroders (sponges as 'parasites') 178-82 reef flats 173-5 reef habitats 173-83 reef slope 178

reef-builders, caves and crevices 175-8 reproduction 183-4 rock pools 173-5 squat lobster (Allogalathea elegans) 267, 271, 272 stenopodideans (coral shrimps) 269 Stolidobranchia 309, 324 stomatopods 266-7 storm intensity 102-3 Subergorgiidae 237-8, 239 submerged reefs on the central GBR 13 surgeon fishes 332-5

suspended sediments 6, 61, 62, 88, 108, 109, 110 Swain Reefs 13-15 Symbiodinium 70, 71, 74, 100, 285 symbiosis 70-2, 99, 184, 205, 224, 318

tanaids 265 temperature 5

temporal changes in coral reef habitats 46-9 terrestrial runoff and GBR 108-12 thalassinideans 271

Thaliacea (salps and doliolids) 140, 308, 309, 310-11 tidal currents 13, 33, 52 tides 33

topography 33-4

tourism 1, 81, 85, 91, 93, 105, 106, 114-15, 119-20,

345, 355 treatments for stings 195, 347 Trichodesmium 36, 67, 68, 133, 135, 137

tube anemones (Ceriantharia) 199, 208 Tubipora (Organ-pipe coral) 230, 231 Tunicata 308-26

class Ascidiacea (sea squirts) 311-22 class Appendicularia 309, 310, 311 class Thaliacea (salps and doliolids) 309, 310-11 classes 308, 309 turbidity 5-6, 10, 24, 26, 34, 36, 44, 52, 54, 57, 88,

109-10, 111, 126, 172, 183, 225 turnstone (Arenaria interpres) 367 tusk snails (Scaphopoda) 282

upright macroalage 146, 147

upwelling 28, 29, 31, 34, 35, 36-7, 46, 52, 55, 65, 132-3, 142-3, 148, 149, 364

vegetated cays 15, 366 W

Water Quality Action Plan 112

wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus) 360, 361, 364,

365, 367 whales 350-7

white-bellied sea eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) 365 wind and upwelling 36-7 wooded islands 11, 15 worms 246-60

clitellates 246, 254-6

echiura 260

myzostomes 246, 256

nematodes 246, 260, 288

nemerteans 246, 260

phoronids 260-1

platyhelminthes 246, 256-9

Xenia 236

Xeniidae 223, 224, 235-7

yellow chat (Epthianura crocea macgregori) 366

Zoanthidea (zoanthids) 199, 205-7 anatomy 207

life history and ecology 207 zoanthids (Zoanthidea) 199, 205-7 anatomy 207

life history and ecology 207 zooxanthellae 5, 33, 40, 70, 89, 90, 11, 139, 196, 207, 209, 218,

224, 231, 285, 317-18 zoning, GBRMPA 50, 58, 114-15, 117-20, 122, 215, 369

Non-reef bioregions in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Each of these is characterised by a unique suite of biota and physical characteristics.

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