Key To The 39 Mangroves Of The Gbr Catchment Coast

1. Palm or ground fern, both trunkless 2

2. Palm to 10 m Nypafruticans

- Ground fern to 1 m Acrostichum speciosum

3. Exuding white sap (oozes from broken leaf or cut bark)

Excoecaria agallocha (Fig. 16.7)

- No exuding sap 4

4. Compound leaves 5

- Simple leaves 7

5. Flower larger than 5 cm, seed pod long curved Dolichandrone spathacea

- Flower less than 1 cm, seed pod rounded, compact 6

6. Seed pod rugose (bivalved, pubescent, irregular), leaflet tip imarginate, buttresses or pneumatophores absent Cynometra iripa

- Seed pod smooth (obscurely 4-valved, coriaceous, globate), leaflet tip apiculate, with conical pneumatophores or plank buttresses Xylocarpus (2 taxa)

7. Simple opposite leaves 8

- Simple alternate leaves 16

8. Leaf undersurface pubescent (silvery grey appearance)

Avicennia marina (2 varieties) (Fig. 16.3)

- Leaf undersurface not pubescent 9

9. Flower zygomorphic, leaf often spiny (small shrub to 2 m) Acanthus (2 taxa)

- Flower symmetric, leaf never spiny (shrub or tree) 10

10. Prop roots and/or buttresses, fruit germinates on tree, viviparous (long, >6 cm, green) 11

- Prop roots or buttresses absent, fruit with seeds, not viviparous (rounded, <6 cm, often not green) 13

11. Fruit inverted pear-shaped, calyx lobes less than six (flat-expanded tube) 12

- Fruit within calyx, calyx lobes 8-15 (turbinate tube) Bruguiera (6 taxa)

12. Calyx lobes five (thick sinuous buttresses) Ceriops (3 taxa)

- Calyx lobes four (sturdy prop roots) Rhizophora (4 taxa)

13. Stipules persistent, pod deeply 8-ribbed (barrel-like) Scyphiphora hydrophylacea

- Stipules absent, pod or fruit not deeply ribbed 14

14. Fruit to 4 cm (globular), tree medium to large (leaves large >5 cm), pneumatophores present Sonneratia (4 taxa)

- Fruit less than 1 cm (calyx pod), shrub to small tree (leaves small <2 cm), pneumatophores absent 15

15. Leaf smooth (glabrous) with oil glands (aromatic when crushed), flower petals absent Osbornia octodonta (Fig. 16.8)

- Leaf pubescent without oil glands, flower petals conspicuous Pemphis acidula

16. Leaf undersurface pubescent (hairs or fine scales, silvery appearance) 17

- Leaf undersurface not pubescent (glabrous) 18

17. Leaf flat, less than 12 cm, seed pod ovate, scaly (less than 1 cm)

Camptostemon schultzii

- Leaf floppy, greater than 12 cm, seed pod keeled, smooth (greater than 5 cm)

Heritiera littoralis

18. Leaf petiole envelopes stem (leaving annular scars) Aegialitis annulata

- Leaf petiole does not envelop stem 19

19. Leaf tip imarginate, bark rough, pneumatophores wiry Lumnitzera (3 taxa)

- Leaf tip not imarginate, bark finely fissured, pneumatophores absent 20

20. Flower with more than eight stamens, flowers on long raceme (>20 cm), fruit pod 4-cornered (leaf >20 cm) Barringtonia racemosa

- Flower with less than eight stamens, flowers not on raceme, fruit pods not 4-cornered (leaf <10 cm) 21

21. Flower bud on simple umbel, fruit horn-like Aegiceras corniculatum (Fig. 16.6)

- Flower bud on obscure peduncle, fruits ovoid Diospyros littorea

Avicennia marina varieties (2)

1. Bark smooth, greenish, leaves lanceolate, calyces incompletely pubescent

var. eucalyptifolia

- Bark rough, grey, leaves ovate-elliptic, calyces entirely pubescent

var. australasica

Genus Xylocarpus (2)

1. Buttresses small, pneumatophores conical, bark grey, vertical fissured, flaky rough, mature fruit 8-12 cm diameter (deciduous in early spring)

Xylocarpus moluccensis

- Buttresses plank-like (sinuous), pneumatophores absent, bark pale orangy, flaky patches, smooth, mature fruit 10-25 cm diameter Xylocarpus granatum

Genus Acanthus (2)

1. Inflorescence open, flower white or deep purple, bract single, bracteoles absent, stem without axillary spines Acanthus ebracteatus

- Inflorescence clustered, flower mauve streaked with white, bract single, bracteoles two, stem with axillary spines Acanthus ilicifolius

Genus Bruguiera (6)

1. Flowers multiple (2-5), small; petal spine exceeds lobes 2

- Flowers solitary, large; petal spine shorter than lobes or absent 3

2. Fruit calyx ribbed, lobes adpressed (1/4-1/5 length of calyx)

Bruguiera parviflora

- Fruit calyx smooth, lobes reflexed (1/2 length of calyx) Bruguiera cylindrica

3. Petal spine absent or minute Bruguiera exaristata

- Petal spine shorter than lobes 4

4. Petal bristles absent or minute Bruguiera sexangula

- Petal bristles 1-3 5

5. Petal bristles 1-2, less than 2 mm Bruguiera X rhynchopetala

- Petal bristles three, greater than 2 mm Bruguiera gymnorhiza (Fig. 16.5)

Genus Ceriops (3)

1. Peduncle length greater than width, petal tip with three lobes, fruit calyx tube flat expanded, mature hypocotyl to 35 cm long 2

- Peduncle length equal to width, petal tip fringe-like, fruit calyx tube cup-shaped, mature hypocotyl to 27 cm long Ceriops decandra

2. Mature hypocotyl to 35 cm long, deeply ribbed Ceriops tagal

- Mature hypocotyl 9-15 cm long, smooth with ribs absent or minor

Ceriops australis

Genus Rhizophora (4)

1. Leaf undersurface without small corky spots, peduncle length less than petiole length, stamens 9-15, calyx lobes thick and angular 2

- Leaf undersurface with small corky spots, peduncle length greater than petiole length, stamens 6-8, calyx lobes thin and rounded 3

2. Bracts corky brown, style length 0.5-1.3 mm, inflorescence branches 1(-2), stamens (9-) 11-12 (-15) Rhizophora apiculata

- Bracts smooth green, style length 1.5-2.7 mm, inflorescence branches l-2, stamens (7-) 8-11 (-15) Rhizophora X lamarckii

3. Style length greater than 2.5 mm, inflorescence branches (0-) 2-4 (-6), stamens (6-) 8 Rhizophora stylosa (Fig. 16.4)

- Style length less than 2.5 mm, inflorescence branches 0-1(-2), stamens (7-8)

Rhizophora mucronata

Genus Sonneratia (4)

1. Calyx smooth and shiny, fruit calyx cup-shaped, fruit diameter <4 cm, less than or equal to hypanthium 2

- Calyx leathery, fruit calyx flat-expanded, fruit diameter > 4 cm, mostly 0.5 cm or more, greater than hypanthium 3

2. Petals white if present; stamens white; calyx shiny, fruit rounded dull

Sonneratia alba

- Petals red, stamens red or white; calyx satiny luster or dull; fruit indented about style base, satiny Sonneratia X gulngai

3. Petals red, stamens red, leaf rounded, calyx grooved often deeply, surface satiny coriaceous, mature flower bud medial constriction Sonneratia caseolaris

- Petals red, stamens white, leaf lanceolate or linear, calyx tube rounded, surface dull smooth, mature flower bud with no medial constriction

Sonneratia lanceolata

Genus Lumnitzera (3)

1. Inflorescence axillary, style central, petals white, stamens equal or slightly exceeding petals, shrub or small tree to 8 m Lumnitzera racemosa

- Inflorescence terminal, style off-centre 2

2. Petals pink, stamens equal or slightly exceeding petals Lumnitzera X rosea

- Petals red, stamens twice as long as petals Lumnitzera littorea

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