Professional Makeup For Beginners
The European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in North America provides a good example of genetic bottlenecking and at the same time shows that low genetic variability does not always limit the success of an alien species. The North American population, now continent-wide in distribution and enormously abundant, is derived from about 100 individuals released in New York City in 1890 and 1891 (Cabe 1998). Allozyme analysis showed that the North American population lacks about 42 of the alleles that occur at loci showing variability in Europe. Furthermore, starlings from different parts of North America show no significant variation in genetic makeup. Even without a high degree of genetic variabil
As noted above, the vast majority of plants have mycorrhizal associates. Little is known yet of the species richness of mycorrhiza, particularly of the arbuscular, or AM, type. Until recently, AM mycorrhiza were assumed to have little host-specificity and to generally colonize a wide range of possible host species. In an intensive study of the plant-AM fungal interactions within a 1-hectare old field in North Carolina, Bever et al. (2001) found that, rather than the initial estimate (in 1992) of 11 AM species in this field, they now have isolated at least 37 species, with one-third of them previously unrecorded. The ecological preference ranges of each species are quite different, reflecting significantly different optima for temperature, moisture content, host, and phenological phases of the plants in the field. The implications of these varied interactions for plant diversity are very large, and the subject is one of increasing interest among plant community ecologists the extent of...
The main morphological-anatomical difference between the two species of Durvillaea is the makeup of the blade. With D. antarctica, the blade is positively buoyant and has the tendency to float at the water's surface (Figure 3.2A). Unlike many other seaweeds, e.g., Macrocystispyrifera or Ascophyllum nodosum, the entire medulla of the blade of D. antarctica is gas-filled rather than only the pneumatocysts. The blade of D. willana lacks the honeycomb-shaped, gas-filled sacks of the medulla. As a consequence, the blade of D. willana is neutrally buoyant and floats upright in the water column if no wave action or currents are present (Figure 3.2B) and is generally not as bulky as the blade of D. antarctica. A difference in the way these two species react to flow-induced loading can therefore be expected.
A variety of techniques has been developed for the isolation and identification of DNA from soil. Techniques include the cell extraction method and the direct lysis method (Saano and Lindstrom, 1995, Zhou et al., 1996). In recent studies of microbial community makeup in agroe-cosystem field soils, Furlong et al. (2002) compared the microbial community composition of earthworm- and non-earthworm-influenced soils at the Horseshoe Bend field site in Athens, GA. The objective was to compare microbial communities from worm casts and open soil this was done by creating clone libraries of the 16S rRNA genes, which were prepared from DNA isolated directly from the soil and earthworm casts. In the cast soils, representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, as well as the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, increased in number (Furlong et al., 2002). The results were consistent with a model where a large portion of the microbial population in soils passed through the gastrointestinal tract of the...
In Florida, five outbreaks of Mediterranean fruit fly occurred between 1962 and 1994 (Gasparich et al. 1997). None of the haplotypes appearing in Florida can be traced to Central America. Furthermore, the haplotypes appearing in 1962-63, 1984 and 1994, and 1990 were different, indicating that four independent introductions probably occurred. Thus, multiple introductions have played a major role in the invasion of various world regions by this insect pest, with resurgence of populations from very low levels very likely playing a role in sudden outbreaks of the species in California. In any case, a very complex evolutionary potential is now present because of the existence of Mediterranean fruit fly populations of differing genetic makeup in different world regions.
Understanding changes to the genetic apparatus of an organism exposed to contaminants in the environment is essential to demonstrating an impact on parameters of ecological significance such as population effects. Genetic ecotoxicology attempts to identify changes in the genetic material of natural biota that may be induced by exposure to genotoxicants in their environment and the consequences at various levels of biological organization (molecular, cellular, individual, population, etc.) that may result from this exposure. Shugart, Theodorakis, and Bickham (Chapter 41) describe two major classes of effects studied in genetic ecotoxicology (1) direct exposure to genotoxicants that have the potential to lead to somatic or heritable (genotoxicological) disease states and that could lower the reproductive output of an affected population, and (2) indirect effects from contaminant stress on populations that lead to alterations in the genetic makeup, a process termed evolutionary...
Precise characterization of DNA and RNA sequences is now being used extensively to determine relationships among organisms. Such analysis of an organism's genetic makeup reveals its genotype. Genotype obviously affects phenotype, but not all genetic capabilities are necessarily expressed in an organism at a particular time. As might be expected, knowledge of genotypes has greatly increased and modified our understanding of the relationships among microorganisms. In fact, the separate domain of Archaea was not recognized until these newer tools were applied previously, they were simply considered types of (and may still often be referred to out of habit as) bacteria.
Under strict homeostasis, we consider individual species to have fixed stoichiometric coefficients in their chemical makeup. Thus, the chemical flexibility needed to balance a reaction where resources are reactants and organism biomass is a product comes from the composition of waste products, another product in the reaction
Diesters of phthalic acid, commonly referred to as phtha-lates, are widely used in industry and commerce, including personal care products (such as makeup, shampoo, and soaps), plastics, medical tubing and medication coatings, paints, and some pesticide formulations. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic cannot be made without adding phthalate plasticizers, which act as softeners. Phthalates are not chemically bonded to PVC, so the phthalates readily migrate out of the PVC (e.g., when a baby sucks on a PVC toy), resulting in human exposure to phthalates. For example, most 'rubber duckies' are about 50 PVC, and the remaining 50 is the phthalate di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), which is actually a mixture of a large number of 100 isomers. cosmetics contain the phthalates DEP and DBP, although manufacturers are increasingly switching to phthalate-free options. PVC also may contain bisphenol A, which, along with phthalates, will leach out of the plastic.
Two of the many examples of inadvertent contamination of people due to the use of consumer products that contain EDCs include exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A. Phthalates are used as additives in cosmetics, intravenous medical tubing, and a wide variety of other products, including those made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polyvinyl chloride products contain phthalates to soften the otherwise brittle PVC so all PVC contains some amount of a phthalate, the softer the product, the greater the amount of phthalate. Exposure to bisphenol A is also widespread. Bisphenol A is a monomer (not just an additive) used in the manufacture of resins that line the inner surface of food metal cans, and to manufacture polycarbonate plastic, which is hard and clear (although it can be colored), and is used to make food and beverage containers as well as a wide range of other products bisphenol A is thus also used as an additive in many types of plastic, including PVC. Phthalates and bisphenol...
Low abundance of resources, or other nonideal environmental conditions, reduces the reproduction rate or increases the death rate in a population, in addition to lowering rates of growth or activity for individual organisms. Reproductive rates are more sensitive to changes in the environment than metabolic rates or death rates since an individual can often survive under conditions under which it cannot reproduce. If a population grows, resources decline and some individuals will not obtain resources in adequate supply. This affects individual reproduction. It is also an example of natural selection, since the individuals that are more successful at obtaining and using resources will make a greater contribution to the genetic makeup of the next generation. If the organisms within a population are members of the same species, this is intraspecific competition.
The industrial mint crops are cultivated in several countries for their essential oils. The oil, menthol, carvone, lemoline, dementholated oil and terpene fractions from the latter are variously used in the cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food, confectionery and liquor industries (Khanuja et al. 2000). The range of medicinal applications of some mints also reflects the diversity of human-utilized products from various members of the genus Mentha. For example, extractions (containing phenols, fla-vonoids, menthol, and menthone) of the oils from peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been shown to have the potential for antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, and antiallergenic properties (McKay and Blumberg 2006). In addition, these extracts have the added benefits of (1) producing relaxation of gastrointestinal tissue, (2) analgesic and anesthetic responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and (3) modulating effects on the immune system of model animals (McKay and...
Unlike a nonliving resource, the genetic makeup of prey species will respond to exploitation through evolution, resulting in defensive adaptations. Defenses from exploitation can take a variety of forms, including behavioral, morphological, or biochemical defenses. Evolution can also result in the development of new attack strategies in consumers, resulting in a continual coevolutionary arms race between consumers and their prey. Exploitation pressure can be regulated by exploitation at higher trophic levels in a process called a trophic cascade. For example, if carnivores limit the population size of herbivores through heavy predation, then the pressure on plants from herbivory will be low. Consider in the equation above how an increase in death rate (d) for herbivores would affect the equilibrium concentration of the herbivore's resource (R*). The herbivore's resource is of course the plant population density. In this case, competitive interactions will be strong for plants and...
Figure 5 A schematic diagram of microalgal biomass production and processing. Microalgae are grown in a cultivation system in the mineral medium under illumination and CO2 supply. The biomass is separated from the medium, disintegrated, and dried. It can be used as a food or feed supplement, health food, or as a source of bioactive substances for pharmacology and cosmetics. Figure 5 A schematic diagram of microalgal biomass production and processing. Microalgae are grown in a cultivation system in the mineral medium under illumination and CO2 supply. The biomass is separated from the medium, disintegrated, and dried. It can be used as a food or feed supplement, health food, or as a source of bioactive substances for pharmacology and cosmetics.
As phylogenetically the oldest organisms, microalgae have adapted to a wide range of extreme habitats. This fact has resulted in the development of numerous protective systems against various stressors - high irra diance in combination with salinity, temperature extremes, desiccation, nutrition deficiency, etc. Microalgae produce various substances such as PUFAs, lipids, antioxidants, or immunologically effective, viro static, and cytostatic compounds. Therefore, microalgae are cultivated commercially for biomass as food and feed additives, as a source of bioactive compounds for pharmacology and cosmetics, or, on a small scale, for research or diagnostic products. The biomass as a pow der, concentrated suspension, or in an applied form is the primary product. The current biotechnology appli cations of the more exploited microalgae are summarized in Table 1.
Macroscopic marine algae (seaweeds or sea vegetables) form an important living resource of the near shore environment. For millennia, people have collected sea weeds for food, fodder for animals, as well as fertilizers and soil enhancers. More recently, seaweeds have become important sources of various biochemicals, such as phycocolloids, and are important in medicine and bio technology. We all use seaweed products in our daily life in some way or other. For example, some seaweed poly saccharides (sometimes referred to as phycocolloids) are used in toothpaste, soaps, shampoo, cosmetics, milk, ice cream, processed meats and other foods, air fresheners, and many other items. In many Asian countries such as Japan, China, and Korea, they are dietary staples.
Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding area, and engineered nanomaterials nanoparticles (ENPs) are finding applications in a wide range of areas including use in cosmetics, bioremediation and water treatment (e.g., Kamat & Meisel 2003 Savage & Diallo 2005 Aitken et al. 2006). It is therefore inevitable that, during their manufacture and use, ENPs will be released to the environment. NPs may also exist naturally (e.g., Diallo et al. 2005) or be formed in water bodies (e.g., Nagy et al. 2003) or be released to the environment in mine wastes (e.g., Walker et al. 2005). Concerns have therefore been raised over the potential impacts of indirect human exposure to NPs on environmental and human health (e.g., Banfield & Zhang 2001 Biswas & Wu 2005 Boxall et al. 2007).
Whilst ENPs may be emitted during the manufacturing process, the route of input to the environment will primarily depend on the end use of the ENP (Boxall et al. 2007). For example, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and sunscreens may be emitted to the sewage system following excretion from the patient or during washing and showering. Once they have passed through the sewer system, they may be released to surface waters. Sunscreens and other cosmetics applied on skin may also enter surface waters directly during swimming or bathing. Waste cosmetics are most likely to be disposed of in household waste that may be landfilled or incinerated. Paints containing ENPs can have both industrial and domestic uses. It is possible that runoff from painted surfaces and domestic use of paints could result in discharges to sewers. In instances where paint is applied to underwater structures or ships, ENPs may be released directly to surface waters. The use of ENPs in fuel and catalysts in vehicles will...
Use of inorganic fertilizers to overcome fertility deficiencies, promote rapid growth, and sustain biomass accumulation generally has been found to have little impact on aquatic systems unless fertilizers are applied directly to streams, lakes, rivers, or adjacent riparian zones. Greater attention has focused on nutrient removals in harvests and the potential for intensive management to reduce site fertility and cause a fall-off in productivity of subsequent rotations. Claims of later-rotation productivity declines have been hard to substantiate, however, as general improvements in seed and seedling quality, genetic makeup, site preparation and
Hybridization Processes that lead to the formation of a hybrid. Hybridization is common among angiosperm plant species, though often the offspring are partially or wholly sterile. In some the hybrids may be able to backcross with one or both parental species, leading to hybrid swarms. Artificial hybridization of normally self-pollinating species involves the transfer by hand of pollen from one plant to another, often using a paintbrush. Its success depends on the presence or absence of incompatibility systems that prevent successful fertilization between individuals of similar genetic makeup. Such techniques have been impor
A full, tertiary treatment plant is in operation in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The plant was designed with the objective of producing a high-quality effluent that is acceptable both as irrigation water and makeup water for power station cooling towers. The plant has a dual design. Both systems use the effluent from an existing trickling filter treatment plant. The system that produces cooling tower makeup water is more extensive, reflecting the more stringent effluent quality requirements (see Figure 7.31.8). The trickling filter effluent first enters a solids-contact clarifier where a slurry of mostly recycled lime coagulates the SS and precipitates the phosphates. The effluent is then neutralized FIG. 7.31.8 Colorado Springs treatment plant section producing an effluent quality that is acceptable as power plant makeup water. FIG. 7.31.8 Colorado Springs treatment plant section producing an effluent quality that is acceptable as power plant makeup water. The retention time in the...
The HA gene codes for a surface glycoprotein of the virion responsible for binding to sialic acid on host cell surface receptors. At a ge-nomic level, lineages of influenza are constantly changing due to mutation that occurs at high rates in RNA viruses. Extinction of evolutionary lineages of viruses to which hosts have become immune or when susceptible hosts are in short supply is common GRE04 . This process of constant replacement of influenza lineages produces a characteristic coniferous shape to a phylogeny reconstructed from HA sequences BUS99 . The conifer metaphor refers to the hypothesis that influenza HA is constantly changing but there is limited diversity at any time FER02 . Thus an influenza HA tree appears to be formed by addition of strains to the apex of the tree's trunk that contains the contemporary infectious viruses rather than more basal presumably extinct lineages to which hosts are immune. Other groups of researchers have used the assumption that...
Thorough dispersion of the polyelectrolyte in the makeup water is essential, although this can be achieved by mechanical agitation, most systems use a disperser (see Figure 7.34.9) or an eductor jet. The vacuum created by the high-velocity water flow sucks in the solids and disperses them uniformly. If an educator jet is used, it can suck the polyelectrolyte from the container through a semirigid polyethylene hose.
Although early models were deterministic, population viability models now incorporate uncertainty or stochasticity (Lande 2002) and analysis of extinction probability or quasi extinction, defined as a population dropping below an arbitrary threshold assigned by the modeler (Burgman et al. 1993). Shaffer (1987) first introduced and defined categories of uncertainty that influence population viability demographic uncertainty, resulting from random events in the survival and reproduction of individuals environmental uncertainty, caused by unpredictable changes in weather, resource supply, and populations of predators, competitors, and so forth natural catastrophes, such as floods, fires, and droughts, which are extreme manifestations of a fluctuating environmental (Lande 1993) and genetic uncertainty, caused by random changes in the genetic makeup of populations due to inbreeding, genetic drift, or founder effects. All of these factors have a stronger influence on small populations than...
With self-sterile plants, self-fertility is almost impossible under normal conditions. It must be remembered that if we take two plants grown vegetatively from the same plant, they will also be self-sterile. This is because the plants have the same genetic makeup and are in reality not two different individuals, but just separate parts of the same original individual. Thus if a cutting is made from a self-sterile plant and allowed to come to flower, it cannot be used to fertilize flowers on the 'mother' plant from which the cutting was obtained the nature of pollen from the two plants is identical. The only exception occurs when the cutting is grown under very different conditions than the 'mother* plant.
Slightly more than 100,000 chemicals arc produced in such an amount that they threaten or may threaten the environment. They cover a wide range of applications household chemicals, detergents, cosmetics, medicines, dye stuffs, pesticides, intermediate chemicals, auxiliary chemicals in other industries, additives to a wide range of products, chemicals for water treatment and so on. They are (almost) indispensable in modern society and all fulfil more or less essential needs in the industrialized world, which has increased the production of chemicals about 40-fold during the last four decades. A proportion of these chemicals inevitably reaches the environment either during their production, their transportation from industry to end user, or
As a consequence of the disadvantages of native species, exotic trees are often and more generally preferred for reforestation because (1) there is generally more silvicultural information (2) often it is possible to obtain seed of known genetic makeup and certified origin, and (3) there are generally well-established markets for plantation products. In several known cases the exotic species, not having local enemies, initially grow free from pests. However, in some cases a local pest finds the species and causes serious problems, as has been the case with the yellowing of china berry trees (Melia azederach) and stem cankers in Australian cedar (Toona australis), both in northeast Argentina and Paraguay and stem rottening of Acacia mangium in Costa Rica (Montagnini, pers. observ.).
Clouds have a profound effect on longwave radiation. In general, they work in the same way as greenhouse gases do they trap the emission from the surface and re-emit some energy back to the system. Efficiency of clouds to absorb and emit longwave radiation depends on several factors including their amount and makeup (water drops or ice crystals) as well as height of cloud tops. Most water clouds emit as blackbodies. Vertically extended cloud systems with the high tops at temperatures much lower than the surface temperature emit little longwave radiation to space while they absorb essentially all surface emission. However, these clouds have offsetting effects on solar and terrestrial radiation in terms of the energy balance of the planet. By reducing the thermal emission they contribute
Statural growth in an animal is the product of its genetic makeup as expressed under the influence of resources available in its environment. The environmental influence is possibly more important in determining the dynamics of growth, especially from birth well into adulthood. We know that Asian elephants kept in Western zoos, in which they are provided a high-nutrient diet but little physical activity, grow much faster than do their wild or tame counterparts in the range states. Fred Kurt (1995) observed that the zoo elephants not only grow faster, but also are 33 -78 heavier than captive animals of similar height in Asian timber camps. It is conceivable that levels of nutrition available for wild elephants would also determine their growth rate on both a seasonal or interannual basis and over their life span. Thus, wet season growth can be expected to be greater than dry season growth in highly seasonal habitats. Elephants in tropical rain forest may also be relatively smaller in...
Biodiversity within particular populations and habitats may be very important for their continued success and survival in the face of both competition and disease. A species or population showing a considerable range of genetic makeup may well have at least some strains able to resist incoming disease, while others may respond better to particular competitive or habitat changes. Such genetic variation within a species and the continuing evolution within particular populations can eventually culminate in forms so different that they are recognized as new and different species. The value of genetic variation is discussed by Booth and Grime (2003) in the introduction to a paper on the effects of genetic impoverishment on plant community diversity. They point particularly to comments by Harper (1977, p. 707) that 'Diversity of a plant community is inadequately described by the number and abundance of the species within it' and that 'a major part of the community diversity exists at the...
Highest level of potential degradability, due to both their organic makeup and their high water content. Cellulose-rich residues, whether discarded as lawn clippings or paper products, would also be amenable to biochemical degradation, although perhaps at a somewhat slower rate. Extending beyond these two segments, though, municipal solid waste includes many other materials whose composition will not be amenable, and possibly even antagonistic or inhibitory, to biochemical degradation. For example, MSW generated within affluent countries includes a sizable proportion of plastic, for which the vast majority will have no susceptibility to biochemical breakdown. Similarly, affluent countries generate municipal solid wastes with a proportionately higher percentage of metals (e.g., cans, batteries, used appliances) whose presence may actually lead to the release via leaching of soluble heavy (e.g., cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and transition (e.g., arsenic, selenium) metal ions that...
Diesters of phthalic acid, commonly referred to as phthalates, are widely used in industry and commerce, including in personal care products (such as makeup, shampoo and soaps), plastics, medical tubing and medication coatings, paints and some pesticide formulations. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic cannot be made without adding phthalate plasticizers, which act as softeners. Phthalates are not chemically bonded to PVC, so the phthalates readily migrate out of the PVC (e.g., when a
All humans share a common ancestor with all the other species on planet earth. We co-evolved with other species within complex ecosystems, and many scientists argue that these origins are reflected in our biological makeup and even our social institutions. We are complex mammals that need some regular contact with nature and other species for our mental health and well-being. The biologist E. O. Wilson coined the term biophilia to describe the affinity humans have with other species. Evidence for the need humans have for some contact with the natural world has been found in numerous psychological studies and even in
The fourth and final disinfection mechanism is that of altering and disrupting a cell's genetic makeup so that the cell is prevented from reproducing even though it may still have the energy to do so. This disinfection effect is largely associated with the use of ultraviolet irradiation, and its consequent high-energy cross-linking of adjacent nitrogen base groups poised side by side at various points within stranded DNA (see the thymine dimer reaction in Figure 16.54). The resulting impact of polymerizing DNA and formation of thymine dimers follow much the same path, such that cells are effectively sterilized by this UV exposure.
Environmental stresses can cause changes in the genetic makeup of a population by favoring organisms with certain alleles more than others. This is, in fact, the normal way that populations can adapt rapidly to changes in their environment without mutations being required to produce new adaptations. It is also the reason why populations with genetic diversity are more likely to survive in the face of change. However, there is another side of this phenomenon related to human impacts on populations. Toxins added to the environment exert selection pressure for individuals that are more tolerant of the toxins. One negative impact of this is that it can reduce the genetic diversity of a population, making it vulnerable to further stresses. Another problem occurs if the organism is a pest and the toxicant is an agent such as a pesticide or antibiotic. As a result of the selection pressure, the population seems to develop tolerance or resistance to the agent, which then becomes less...
Emergy and UEVs are useful measures that may be applied to systems of all scales to better understand hierarchy, control, development, stress, and ultimately ecosystem health. UEVs measure the convergence of biosphere work into processes and products of ecosystems and offer the opportunity to scale ecosystems and their parts based on the energy required to develop and maintain them. Systems are hierarchically organized and composed of physical structure (i.e., wood, biomass, detritus, animal tissue, etc.) and information found not only in genetic makeup of components but in the relationships and connections between individuals and groups of individuals. Because of the demands of thermodynamic costs with each transformation, the energy, materials, and information associated with higher hierarchical levels of systems are relatively small in comparison with lower levels. A failure to account for
To permanently interfere with gene expression and other cellular activities, resulting in abnormalities and disease that becomes apparent in adulthood . Thus, while some functional deficits and disease states are due to inherited mutations in genetic makeup, many diseases may also be associated with alterations in gene expression. These alterations relate to differential methylation of cytosine in the 5' region of the promoter (where the presence of methyl-cytosine leads to gene silencing) as well as changes in acetylation methylation of histone proteins that determine whether genes are able to be activated by transcription factors. These chemical modifications of chromatin and DNA are referred to as 'epigenetic' changes and are now recognized as a major factor in the process of cell differentiation as well as the ontogeny of cancer, in contrast to classical mutations, which involve base deletions and substitutions.
Elutriation is the washing of suspended sludge held in suspension by air or stirring. It reduces alkalinity and makes the sludge more filterable. Single and multitank (countercurrent) elutriation are both used. The single-tank system uses repeated sludge washing, whereas in the coun-tercurrent system, fresh wash water is added to the last sludge tank. The wash water overflow from the last-stage tank furnishes the wash for the previous tank. Although the countercurrent system requires additional tanks and piping, it uses less makeup wash water.
After dispersing the solid flocculant, wastewater treatment facilities need only use minimum agitation to assure a uniform solution concentration. A low flow of compressed air or a mechanical mixer can be used. Mechanical mixers or air spargers can be used for agitation during solution preparation. Dissolving dry flocculants does not require violent agitation by high-speed mechanical mixers the mixing equipment need only generate a moderate rolling action throughout the makeup tank. Figure 7.34.10 shows a typical flocculant feed system using a manual disperser.
Angel wings represent a potentially serious threat to human hosts, but one that is easily dealt with if the infestation is caught in time. Angel wing larvae infest humans in the same way they infect indigenous animals. The compounds they seek, however, are apparently absent from the human biochemical makeup. When not supplied with the nutrient, angel wing larvae fail to emerge, and after approximately a week they die. The necrotic parasites can subsequently cause a number of complications including fast fungus (MG 168) infections, gangrene, and various other toxicity syndromes.
Solving these problems requires bactericide and or al-gicide additives, blowdown and addition of makeup water, and a system cooling tower. The original design included a cooling tower hookup, if required, together with a chemical feed system. However, makeup water from the
Nickel may be reclaimed from the rinse tank by evaporation, and the concentrated solution returned to plating. The condensate is recovered and reused as makeup to the rinse system. Ion exchangers are also used for the recovery of nickel and water. The rinse water is passed through cation and anion exchangers in series, with deionized water recycled into the rinse tanks. The cation exchanger, which removes the nickel ions, is periodically regenerated with acid. The regenerating solution containing the concentrated nickel salts can then be treated and reused in plating operations.
Up until the past decade, all forms of these concentrated residuals, whether raw or treated, were commonly described with the same sludge label in deference to the typically negative context associated with words whose spelling begins with sl '' (e.g., slap, sleet, slum, slam, etc.). However, despite the unwholesome connotations implied by sludge, the nature and makeup of many properly treated residuals (i.e., suitably degraded, stabilized, disinfected, and dewatered) can actually be rather positive, if not altogether even valuable harkening back, as it were, to the earliest days of wastewater processing as a means of generating nutrient-rich fertilizers.
Exotic species sometimes form hybrids with native plants, thus creating species that become new invasives and altering the genetic makeup of the community. For example, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass), a native of eastern U.S. salt marshes, formed a hybrid with S. maritima when it was introduced to French and English marshes in the 1800s. The hybrid S. townsendii was sterile, but a mutation yielded a new species, S. anglica, that has proven to be an aggressive invasive along European coastlines (Beeftink 1977). In New Zealand, the exotic shrub Viburnum opulus (guelder rose) has become naturalized in bogs where it breeds with V. americanum. The resulting hybrid grows more rapidly than the original species (Flack and Benton 1998).
The response of a species to environmental conditions or resources depends on the genetic makeup of the species. The limits and optima are determined through natural selection and other mechanisms that affect the genome. All organisms have some degree of phenotypic plasticity, or the ability to adapt to the environment. In microorganisms, a change in an environmental condition can induce expression of alternative phenotypes (e.g., proteins, phospholipids) that are adapted to the new conditions, broadening the range of conditions acceptable for the species. The cost associated with this ability is extra genetic material that must be duplicated with each cell division, resulting in lower efficiency of resource use. This strategy can be efficient in fluctuating environments such as the soil surface. At the other extreme, endosymbionts that live continuously within the host and depend on the homeostasis of their host can have reduced genomes (Silva et al., 2001 Gil et al., 2003).
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