Crickets Breeding Made Simple

The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual

The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual is a comprehensive guide to easily breed crickets as live food. The book involves revolutionary techniques that have cut maintenance, eradicated offensive odor, and doubled production. With this manual, you don't need active management; it is an automated system that will even collect waste for you and you only need 5 minutes of maintenance every week. The system also comes with food and water dispensers that will attend to your insects for 14 days or even more. It is a productive system that it would take the average family to eat 4-12 bearded dragons depending on the insect feeding rate, just from their scrap vegetables. The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual includes easy-to-follow instructions and steps that even children can build. Additionally, the materials needed to build the system are readily available from recycles or hardware. The Complete Cricket Breading Manual is product form WildlifeHub, founded by Glenn Kvassay, a passionate Biologist with over 13 years' experience training, breeding and researching insects' production systems. Glenn focus is to improve the efficiency of the insect industry via extensive research, innovation, education, and partnerships. Read more here...

The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual Summary

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The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual

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Crickets Breeding Made Simple

With the Crickets Breeding Made Simple, which immediately downloads onto your computer, you are going to receive: Ground-breaking building tips for breeding crickets! Cricket maintenance, so that you keep your colony in top health forever! This allows you to: Save on monthly pet food expenses. Save yourself the troubles of looking for pet food during season when less food is available. Reduce the risks of have sick/virus-infected crickets to feed your pets, which can eventually cause sickness or even death to your pets. Make money and sell to other pet owners & pet shops. Purchase more pets, such as leopard gecko, bearded dragon from the money earned from selling crickets. Crickets are perhaps one of the slickest creatures when it comes to getting away. No matter how great you treat them, crickets by nature have a habit of trying to go off on their own. However, there is a sure-proofed way to keep any and all of your crickets at bay every single day of the year., but with this unique guide youll know how to keep your crickets healthy and strong for as long as they live. Inside this guide, you'll discover things that You are possibly doing to drive your crickets away as well as things that you can start doing to make them want to stay with you for as long as you want them around. This breakthrough guide simply opens your eyes to what you can do to keep your crickets around a lot longer. Read more here...

Crickets Breeding Made Simple Summary

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Crickets Orthoptera Gryllidae

Field measurements of Th in crickets suggest that most are thermoconformers (Prestwich and Walker, 1981 Toms et al., 1993). This accounts for the cricket thermometers. The acoustic parameters which are the result of temperature-dependent systems (e.g. nerve and muscle) exhibit thermal dependency as well. There is a temperature dependency for pulse frequency, wing stroke rate, pulse length, interpulse interval and carrier frequency in crickets (Brooks, 1882 Dolbear, 1897 Bessey and Bessey, 1898 Alexander, 1957b Walker, 1957, 1962a, 1962b, 1963, 1969a, 1969b, 1969c, 1998, 2000 Bennet-Clark, 1970b Popov and Shuvalov, 1977 Sismondo, 1979 Prestwich and Walker, 1981 Doherty and Huber, 1983 Forrest, 1983 Doherty, 1985 Doherty and Callos, 1991 Pires and Hoy, 1992a, 1992b Souroukis etal., 1992 Toms, 1992 Toms etal., 1993 Ciceran et al., 1994 Olvido and Mousseau, 1995 Van Wyk and Ferguson, 1995 Hill, 1998 Gray and Cade, 2000 Martin et al., 2000) (Figure 7.4). The temperature dependency of...

Songs Calls And Terminology

Insect sounds are usually structured in some obvious way, so that oscillograms show characteristic temporal patterns (see most chapters of this book). Occasionally, in very well worked examples, it is possible to determine an exact correspondence between the detailed structure of the mechanism and the sound pattern. For example, many crickets and grasshoppers produce obvious units of sound, each of which corresponds to a complete cycle of movement of the stridulatory surfaces. Different authors have used different terms for these basic units, such as chirp and echeme. In most insects an exact equivalence between movements of the mechanism and the sound produced is not obvious. Often, the precise mechanism is not even known. It is essential that descriptions of songs use a clear and objective terminology for units of sound which have no pretence at illuminating underlying physiology or claiming exact homology between species in the absence of detailed evidence. The units of sound and...

Insect immunity and organismlevel interactions

The outcome of host-parasite interactions can also depend on the presence of other players, for example predators. Adamo's chapter (Chapter 11) shows how and why short-term immunosuppres-sion mediated by stress occurs. The best example is that of crickets, which show a flight-or-fight syndrome. In the presence of predators or other sources of stress, these insects show lowered resistance against infection. This seems to be mediated by the demand for lipids to fuel the flight. A specific protein, apoliphorin III, is usually involved in immunosurveillance, but has now been found to be essential for lipid transport. Such physiological trade-offs are not only a cause of concern when assessing experimentally the resistance of a particular organism, but they add a further layer of complexity to understanding the evolution of resistance in its ecological context, where encounters with predators might be rather frequent. This chapter resonates, of course, with the earlier one by Schneider...

Discussion and Future Directions

This long list of comparisons in one group brings out the multiple ways in which heightened condition dependence of sexual traits can be assessed. Not all of these comparisons can be made in other species. For example, male Gryllus crickets make loud calls to attract females (Alexander, 1961), but females do not call, so no female homologous trait exists for comparison. In addition, there are no obvious non-sexual behavioural or acoustic traits in males with which calling can be compared. In the absence of such traits, researchers have examined different aspects of the male call, looking at differences between long-range calls and short-range courtship song, and different elements within these call types. Unfortunately, clear conclusions have not been drawn because of the non-systematic experimental approach, but it does appear that some traits have stronger condition-dependent expression than others. These preliminary results need to be related to the prediction that call elements...

Biophysics Of Sound Production And Acoustic Behaviour

Two different mechanisms of sound production have been described for Ensifera with respect to the physical mode of oscillation (Elsner and Popov, 1978). So-called resonant sound production which is used by the Gryllidae (Nocke, 1971) and some Tettigoniidae (Suga, 1966) and the nonresonant mechanism used by the majority of tettigoniids. The mechanism of resonant sound production in gryllids has been analysed in detail by Nocke (1971), Elliot and Koch (1985) and Koch et al. (1988).The songs of gryllids consist of syllables with a narrow banded power spectrum, the syllables having the appearance of a pure sinusoidal sound pulse. Recently, Stephen and Hartley (1995) showed that the frequency of consecutive syllables was not constant, but varied about a mean value. In contrast to previous work (Nocke, 1971 Elliot and Koch, 1985), this showed that the principal frequency component of the syllable was not generated by the vibration of a structure of

Comparison With Other Insects

The morphology and function of the subgenual organ is best investigated in Orthoptera. The subgenual organ is present in all six legs. In the forelegs of most orthopteran groups it forms part of a complex tibial organ, which is highly specialised to detect airborne- and substrate-borne sound. Species of the family Haglidae (Mason, 1991), Stenopelmatidae (Ball and Field, 1981) and Tettigoniidae (Ball and Field, 1981 Lin et al., 1993) have fully developed complex tibial organs with the subgenual organ, intermediate organ and crista acoustica. In the front legs of crickets (Gryllidae) the intermediate organ is lacking, in Raphidophoridae the complex organ consists of the subgenual and intermediate organ and in Acrididae and Blattidae only the subgenual and distal organs are present in the leg subgenual region (Schnorbus, 1971 Moran and Rowley, 1975). The distal organ may represent a predecessor of the intermediate organ (Lin et al., 1995). The subgenual organ responds with highest...

Recognition Vs Localisation

In order to catch a prey or find a conspecific mate, insects have to accomplish each task by recognising the emitter and locating the same. Under natural conditions, insects often have to choose between signals which are emitted from different, spatially separated sources. In order to orientate towards the correct one, the recognition and localisation tasks have to be integrated or coordinated. Integration processes have been examined in grasshoppers, crickets and bushcrickets in relation to processing directional information in sound communication (reviewed by Pollack, 1998 Gerhardt and Huber, 2002). Studies aimed at providing information on interactions

Case Study Panesthiinae

Like termites and some other insects, Panesthiinae with deciduous wings restrict flight activity to the pre-reproductive stage of their adult life. It would therefore be of interest to determine if flight muscle histolysis accompanies wing loss, and if so, how it relates to fecundity. In crickets, dealation induces histolysis of the wing muscles and a correlated rapid production of eggs (Tanaka, 1994).

Communication and the Environment

The most effective place to signal from is affected by several factors including transmission conditions and the area to be encompassed by the signal. Environmental factors affecting signal transmission often vary from location to location within habitats. For example, studies that broadcast bird song and record it at different locations to investigate location effects on transmission have shown that the best perch height for maximizing song transmission (i.e., where signalers should be found) is lower than that which favors sound reception (where receivers should be found). As many visual signals rely on reflected light (see above), it is not surprising that signaler location is strongly affected by the incident light regimes in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some species take things further and alter the properties of the signaling location to enhance signal transmission. For example, mole crickets excavate a calling burrow in an exponential horn shape to amplify their call...

Nesting and Brood Care

Extended maternal care, including provision of food for offspring, is seen in crickets, cockroaches, some Homoptera, and nonsocial Hymenoptera. For example, females of the membracid, Umbonia crassicornis, enhance offspring survival by brooding eggs, cutting slits in the bark of twigs to facilitate feeding by nymphs, and defending nymphs against predators (T. Wood 1976). Survival of nymphs with their mother present was 80 , compared to 60 when the mother was removed 2-3 days after egg hatch and 10 when the mother was removed prior to making bark slits. Females responded to predators or to alarm pheromones from injured offspring by fanning wings and buzzing, usually driving the predator away (T.Wood 1976).

Competitive Defensive and Mutualistic Behavior

Acoustic signals are used by many Orthoptera and some Coleoptera to deter competitors. Bark beetles stridulate to deter other colonizing beetles from the vicinity of their gallery entrances (Rudinsky and Ryker 1976). Subsequently, excavating adults and larvae respond to the sounds of approaching excavators by mining in a different direction, thus preventing intersection of galleries. Some male crickets and grasshoppers produce a distinctive rivalry song when approaching each other (Matthews and Matthews 1978,Schowalter and Whitford 1979). The winner (continued occupant) usually is the male that produces more of this aggressive stridulation. The type of territory differs among insect taxa, but usually it is associated with competition for food or mates (Matthews and Matthews 1978, Price 1997). Male crickets defend the area around their dens and mate with females attracted to their stridulation. Male eastern woodroaches, Cryptocercus punctulatus, defend mating chambers in rotten wood...

Katydids Orthoptera Tetticoniidae

Walker, 1975a, 1975b Samways, 1976a Gwynne and Bailey, 1988 Stiedl etal., 1994) as expected in ectotherms. For example, the chirp rate of Neoconocephalus ensiger (Harris) correlates to ra with a Q10 of about two (Frings and Frings, 1957). Even though temperature varies the acoustic parameters of some katydid calls, there are species who can alter the rate of their calls to remain in synchrony with the temporal patterns of calls produced by males at different temperatures (Samways, 1976a), as seen in some crickets.

Sound Reception And Temperature

Several studies have shown a temperature coupling between female preference and male song production. Female planthoppers (de Vrijer, 1984), grasshoppers (von Helverson and von Helverson, 1981 Skovmand and Pedersen, 1983 Bauer and von Helverson, 1987) and crickets (Walker, 1957, 1963 Doherty and Huber, 1983 Doherty, 1985 Pires and Hoy, 1992a, 1992b) (Figure 7.7) have been shown to respond best to calls produced by males whose Th is similar to the female. Evidence has also been provided that female cicadas, both ectothermic (Heath, 1967 Heath et al., 1971 Sanborn et al., 1992, 2002a) and endothermic (Sanborn et al., 1995a Sanborn, 2000 Villet et al., 2003), have a Th similar to calling males. The temperature coupling observed would insure that females respond to the male signal. Thermoregulating is an additional means to insure Th of males and females are within the same range so this coupling can occur. It appears that temperature coupling is based on temperature influences on...

Crawley WA Australia Perth WA Australia

Hibernation is when an organism spends the winter in a state of dormancy it is long-term multiday torpor. Many plants survive extended periods of cold and desiccation, either as aboveground trees or shrubs, or as underground structures. Protective scales around stem tips allow buds of aboveground plants to endure winter conditions without damage. The aboveground structures of other plants die back in unfavorable conditions, leaving dormant underground bulbs, rhizomes, tubers or corms, for which the soil buffers environmental extremes. Many plants accumulate solutes in their fluids to prevent freezing during winter, while others can tolerate freezing of water in their xylem and other extracellular water pools. For ectothermic animals, hibernation is primarily a behavioral state with reduced body temperature, hence activity and metabolic rate. Some use supercooling or antifreeze solutes to avoid freezing, or tolerate freezing of their extracellular fluids (e.g., weta crickets and wood...

Minimal Signal Length

Call length were tested by attracting foliage gleaning bats to different species producing different calls rates. Bats were more attracted to a species producing a call rate of 60 min compared with one calling infrequently at less that one call per minute (Belwood and Morris, 1987). Gleaning bats also prefer the long calls of crickets (Bailey and Haythornthwaite, 1998).

Summary And Conclusions

A common assumption is that insect acoustic signals are under sexual selection, which includes, as a component of female choice, species' identity and preference for traits that reflect male quality. If selection operates in this way then we may expect an increase in signal length and complexity of the male call. Counter selection should come through increased expenditure of metabolic energy used in calling, most noticeable as a trade-off, with energy diverted to spermatogenesis and the production of accessory gland material and predation. Predation events, particularly among the ensiferan Orthoptera, are most noticeable by parasitic flies and bats where, in tropical and subtropical regions, bats include foliage gleaning species. There is evidence from studies on crickets that predation from parasitic flies not only influences call length but also female call preference. Evidence for counter selection from bats is more indirect, and there are few experimental studies that support this...

Evolutionary Inference And Possible Adaptive Value Of Observed Modification Of Behaviour During Cave Adaptation

There, males usually initiate calling, and in the genus Javesella males were observed to emit a few successive calls, then to stop calling for a variable amount of time, walk off the grass stem if there is no response by a female and, when placed back on the grass stem, produce a new series of calling signals. Under natural conditions, this strategy of acoustic exploration of environments with complex architecture (e.g. dense vegetation, grass tussocks, etc.) is apparently applied by males to locate receptive females (de Vrijer, 1986). Unfortunately, little is known about the courtship pattern in epigean Oliarus species which are closely related to the cavernicolous species. This limited knowledge makes it impossible to confirm that the switch from male to female initial calling occurs during cave adaptation. It is conceivable that the behaviour observed in O. polyphemus is a strategy to economise mate location under the specific conditions of the cave...

Parasitoidinduced Changes in Host Behaviour

Many arthropods exhibit changes in behaviour in response to the risk of parasitism or as a direct consequence of being parasitized (Moore, 1995). Among the best examples of parasitoids as a selective force in host populations is in field crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, attacked by tachinids that prefer to forage at dusk (Zuk et al., 1993). In turn, cricket populations where tachinids occur sing primarily during scotophase, whereas cricket populations in areas without tachinids sing during both scotophase and dusk. Crickets also exhibit alterations in male aggression

Biome and Landscape Patterns

Different species compose these functional groups in different biomes. For example, the insect grazer functional group is composed primarily of moths, beetles, and tree crickets in broadleaved forests, moths and sawflies in coniferous forests (Schowalter 1995, Schowalter and Ganio 1999, Schowalter et al. 1981c), grasshoppers in grasslands and shrublands (Curry 1994), and caddisflies and flies in aquatic communities (e.g., Hart 1992). The predator functional group in terrestrial arthropod communities is dominated by a variety of arachnids, beetles, flies, and wasps, whereas in aquatic arthropod communities this functional group is dominated by dragonflies, true bugs, and beetles.

Interpretation of assays of immune function

For example, handling stress induces the release of octopamine in crickets (Woodring et al., 1988). Therefore, studies that examine how different treatments influence immune function need to consider whether each group, including the control group, is exposed to the same level of stress. Otherwise, the observed differences in immune function may be due to non-specific stress effects, as opposed to the treatment being tested. Not all immune responses are altered by acute stress in crickets (Table 11.2). Because individual immune responses are more important against some pathogens than others (Adamo, 2004b), changes in disease resistance induced by shifts in physiological state may be pathogen-specific. For example, the enzyme PO, a commonly assayed immune parameter, is critical for resistance against some pathogens such as viruses and multicellular parasites (Kanost and Gorman, 2008). However, D. melanogaster mutants that lack PO activity are as resistant as wild-type flies to...

Series of a single variable

Campbell & Shipp (1974) tried to explain the migrations of an Australian cricket from observations on rhythms of locomotor activity of the males and females. One summer migration was followed during 100 days, starting in mid-February. In addition, locomotor activity rhythms of the males and females were observed in the laboratory during ca. 100 days. Fig. 12.16 shows smoothed spectra for numbers of migrating crickets and locomotor activity, for both sexes.

Typical Biota and Biodiversity in Riparian Wetlands

Apart from beavers, several other biota act as 'ecological engineers' that create and modify riparian wetlands. African hippopotamus deepen pools and form trails that increase the ponding of the water. Several crocodilians maintain open water channels. Digging mammals, freshwater crabs, and insects like mole crickets increase the pore space in riparian soils and enhance the water exchange between wetland and stream channel. Similar macropores develop from fouling tree roots. Plants also strongly modify the habitat characteristics in riparian wetlands, either actively, by influencing soil, moisture, and light conditions or, passively, by changing the hydraulic conditions through tree fall or organic debris dams.

Types And Patterns Of Detritivory And Burrowing A Detritivore and Burrower Functional Groups

Many detritivores redistribute large amounts of soil or detritus during foraging or feeding activities (e.g., Kohlmann 1991). However, nondetritivores also contribute to mixing of soil and organic matter. Fossorial functional groups can be distinguished on the basis of their food source and mechanism and volume of soil detrital mixing. Subterranean nesters burrow primarily for shelter. Vertebrates (e.g., squirrels, woodrats, and coyotes) and many invertebrates, including crickets and solitary wasps, excavate tunnels of various sizes, usually depositing soil on the surface and introducing some organic detritus into nests. Gatherers, primarily social insects, actively concentrate organic substrates in colonies. Ants and termites redistribute large amounts of soil and organic matter during construction of extensive subterranean, surficial, or arboreal nests (J. Anderson 1988, Haines 1978). Subterranean species concentrate organic matter in nests excavated in soil, but many species bring...

Individual immune priming immune memory

In crickets lifetime upregulation of immune components following a nymphal immune challenge has been demonstrated (Jacot et al., 2005). Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in insects that immune priming increases the probability of survival against subsequent exposures of fungi (Rosengaus et al., 1999b Moret and Siva-Jothy, 2003) and bacteria (Rosengaus et al., 1999b). In shrimps, the effects of a commonly occurring viral infection are reduced following an earlier priming with a controlled dose of the virus (Wu et al., 2002), and this effect can be replicated when only using a particular viral envelope protein (Witteveldt et al., 2004). These studies do not show specificity, nor aim to investigate it however functional studies showing protective immune priming and specificity in tandem are beginning to emerge. Strain-specific immune priming has been shown for crustaceans infected by cestodes (Kurtz and Franz, 2003), but some of the best evidence for lasting specific immune priming...

Influence of herbivores

Insect Groups

Whose forewings are modified to form protective elytra that meet along the mid-dorsal line and protect the membranous hind wings which fold beneath them. They have biting mouth parts and many of them, especially the death-watch beetle Xestobium rufovillosum, cause considerable damage to timber. The weevils (Curculionoidea), of which there are 11 families, are by far the largest major group of Coleoptera. One species, the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, has killed millions of Norway spruce Picea abies trees. Next numerous are the Lepidoptera with less than half the number of species. Many of these four-winged moths and butterflies are extremely beautiful, but their larval stages often cause severe damage to plant populations. The hornets, wasps, bees, and ants of the Hymenoptera follow with 13 of species, while the two-winged flies of the Diptera have 12 . Various members of the Hemiptera (true bugs), whose mouth parts are used for piercing and sucking, attack both flowering plants...

Food Chains and Food Webs

The detrital food chain is the major pathway of energy flow because grazers utilize so little of the net production. Millipedes, snails, mushrooms, cave crickets, maggots, slugs and most of the oozes (although some can be quite predatory) are all examples of detrital chain organisms. They play an important, if somewhat disgusting, role in the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem. Everything that's not eaten by herbivorous grazers eventually ends up as fodder in the detrital chain. We're all food for the worms.

Case Study Hawaii Food

Camel Spider Pictures

The main energy sources in Hawaiian lava tube ecosystems are tree roots, which penetrate the lava for several decameters organic matter, which washes in with percolating rainwater and accidentals, which are surface and soil animals blundering into the cave. Both living and dead roots are utilized, and this source is probably the most important. Furthermore, both rainwater and accidentals often use the same channels as roots to enter caves, so that root patches often provide food for a wide diversity of cave organisms. The importance of roots in the cave ecosystem makes it desirable to identify the major species. This has become possible only recently by using DNA-sequencing technology. The most important source of roots is supplied by the native pioneer tree on young lava flows Metrosiderospolymorphs Cocculus orbiculatus, Dodonaea viscosa, and Capparis are locally important in drier habitats. Several different slimes and oozes occur on wet surfaces and are utilized by scavengers in...

Why does acute stressinduced immunosuppression exist

The resource crunch hypothesis explains, at least in part, acute stress-induced immunosuppression in insects. In crickets, conflicts between immune function and lipid transport can lead to acute stress-induced immunosuppression (Adamo et al., 2008). Crickets release octopamine during flight-or-fight behaviours (Adamo et al, 1995). Octopamine, directly and or indirectly, induces the mobilization of lipid from the fat body in order to fuel flight-or-fight behaviours (Orchard et al., 1993). As lipid levels in the haemolymph increase, the protein apolipo-phorin III (apoLpIII) changes its conformation and combines with high-density lipophorin (HDLp) to form low-density lipophorin (LDLp), which has an increased lipid-carrying capacity (Figure 11.4 see Weers and Ryan, 2006 for review). However, in the unlipidated form, apoLpIII acts as an immune-surveillance molecule (Weers and Ryan, 2006). Once apoLplll becomes part of LDLp, it appears to lose that ability. This loss results in a decline in...

The puzzle of acute stressinduced immunosuppression in animals

Figure 11.1 Fighting crickets (Gryllus texensis). Figure 11.1 Fighting crickets (Gryllus texensis). Figure 11.2 Flying, fighting, and forced running result in a decline in resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens compared with resting control crickets (Gryllus texensis) (Z 3.3, P< 0.001 test for trends and contrasts for frequency data Meddis, 1984). Data are normalized and taken from Adamo and Parsons (2006) and unpublished data. Sample sizes control n 225, flight n 94, fight n 24, running n 120.

Evidence for dispersal evolution

Southwood (1962) was one of the first researchers to gather evidence in support of the temporal variability hypothesis. He assembled supporting evidence from the existing literature on insect dispersal, including incidence of migratory habits, and catches in airborne insect traps. His paper was not supported by explicit statistics but are consistent with the hypothesis. For example, most species of British dragonfly that migrate also use temporary water bodies like lakes or ponds for breeding habitat. Of the species from rivers, streams, or bogs, none migrate. Roff (1990) did a similarly comprehensive review, this time supported by statistics,using presence or absence of wings as the marker for dispersal. The proportion of species without wings differed significantly among habitats, with woodlands, deserts, and the ocean surface having particularly high levels of winglessness, which he interpreted in favour of the hypothesis. In a survey of North American grasshoppers and crickets...

Monogamy polygamy and promiscuity

Polygynandry refers to the situation in which two or more males within a group are bonded socially with two or more females. This differs from promiscuity, a system in which any female can mate with any male without any social ties being formed. Differentiating between polygynandry and promiscuity may require a detailed study of a particular social group, and in fact the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Promiscuity is very common in mammals, occurring in at least 133 mammalian species (Wolff and Macdonald, 2004). It has also been documented in birds such as sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) (Wiley, 1973) and in a number of fish species including guppies (Poecilia reticulata) (Endler, 1983). Promiscuity can have high fitness benefits to males if they can fertilize multiple females. Females may also benefit from promiscuous mating, as illustrated by field experiments on a number of species, including adders (Vipera berus) (Madsen et al., 1992) and crickets (Gryllus...

Central Mechanisms Of Vibration Localisation In Insects

In comparison with mechanisms of sound localisation in insects (reviewed by Gerhardt and Huber, 2002), processing of vibratory signals in the central nervous system has been very poorly studied and we are still far from understanding how information from vibration receptors is integrated and in turn controls orientation behaviour. In comparison with sound localisation in crickets, for example, localisation of a vibratory source is less amenable to experimental analysis. Most of the insects that rely on vibratory communication are very small, even compared with crickets, bushcrickets and grasshoppers. Also, because of very complicated modes of transmission through the substrate, it is extremely difficult to provide a predictable, experimentally manipulated stimulus. The task involves not only processing of the binaural cues in one segment, but also from several (usually six) spatially separated inputs located in three different thoracic ganglia, each having several receptor organs...

Lifehistory Patterns and Plasticity

One example is the theory on latitudinal and altitudinal patterns of size variation. It has been proposed that insects should often be expected to follow a 'saw-tooth' pattern in development time and (consequently) size (Roff, 1980, 1983). At high latitudes or altitudes the favourable season is short and the optimal development time short. Going south or to lower elevations the optimal time for growth and development becomes longer hence adult size should increase. Such patterns of increasing size to the south have been documented in crickets (Mousseau and Roff, 1989) and other ectotherms (Mousseau, 1997), including butterflies (Nylin and Svard, 1990). However, in facultatively multivoltine species an additional generation in the same season can be added when the season becomes long enough to allow it. This effectively cuts the season into two parts and can be predicted to lead to a decrease in size, before it starts increasing again. The best-documented sawtooth patterns in size are...

Ecological and Economic Significance

The caterpillar feeds on a lupine in pine barrens of the northeast United States, which are being lost to housing developments. Like many vertebrates endemic to islands, species of large, flightless insects have fallen easy prey to introduced rats and mongoose, such as the phasmid Dry-ococelus australis on Lord Howe Island, some large-headed stenopelmatid crickets (wetas) on New Zealand, and the giant earwig of St. Helena Island, all probably extinct. Most endangered and extinct insects were either narrowly specialized or distributed, like those in fragile ecosystems on distant islands.

Carcharias megalodon See Megatooth shark

Both kinds of cavefishes interested CD, who after having read an article by Silliman (1851) asked for further information What I want to know is, whether any of the Crustacea, spiders, insects (flies*beetles, crickets & c) & Fish belong to the American type (Has not *Agassiz noticed the Fish ) ie to genera or sections of genera, found only on the American continent. - I shd be most grateful for any, the least, information on this head (Correspondence to J. D. Dana, July 14,1856).

Long And Complex Calling

Long signals are not necessarily complex. For example, many cicadas, crickets and bushcrickets call for extremely long periods of time, either alone or in a chorus with calls that have little structure except a repeated syllable. Such stereotyped calling inevitably has high redundancy, providing advantage within the noise of the habitat and the calls of other insects. The pattern of the calling male may contain species' information and where species are syntopic, females are usually able to distinguish between males based on syllable repetition rates or the internal temporal structure of the signal (Bailey and Robinson, 1970 Claridge, 1985b Ritchie, 1996). In these cases, call pattern can be considered to be under stabilising selection (Hedrick and Weber (1998) in Gryllus integer and Stumpner and Helversen (1994) in species of Chorthippus). Some continuously calling insects divide their calls into chirps and trills, where part of the call is more attractive to females perhaps a first...

Experimental Studies of Condition Dependence in Insect Sexual Traits

All but two of the studies report that sexual traits were condition-dependent that is, the sexual trait showed decreased size (morphology) or decreased vigour (courtship) in response to experimentally increased stress (but see discussion of Jia et al., 2000, below). The remaining two studies, both in crickets, found that courtship song was not condition-dependent (Wagner and Reiser, 2000 Gray and Eckhardt, 2001). A comparison with a non-sexual trait is needed to assess the important hypothesis made by the handicap hypothesis that sexual traits have evolved heightened condition dependence. Only 11 studies compared the response of the sexual ornament with suitable non-sexual traits. All but two (Arnqvist and Thornhill, 1998 Gray and Eckhardt, 2001) confirmed that the sexual trait was more sensitive to stress than control traits (David et al., 1998, 2000 Knell et al., 1999 Wagner and Hoback, 1999 Holzer et al., 2003 Scheuber et al., 2003a,b Cotton et al., 2004b,c). These studies were...

Populations

Yet why do we become ecologists in the first place Is it because of our love of computer programs and statistics For most of us, that would be, No. More likely it is because of a love of the organisms that we find in natural (wild) places. We love the sounds, the smells, the feel, the being in nature. Perhaps it is also because of our love of the idea of nature and of places not yet under the total domination of Homo sapiens. Nothing quite matches a day (or night) in the field for an ecologist, and we are usually eager to communicate these experiences to other people. Contrast an ecologist to a typical urban dweller like Woody Allen. In one of his movies Woody complains that he hates spending nights in the country because of the constant noise of the crickets. Yet, he and his urban counterparts find the constant traffic noises of New York City soothing. Most population ecologists have a different view.

Diversity

Among the Polyneoptera, one of the basal groups, the stoneflies and their relatives (Plecoptera) produce a variety of substrate transmitted signals by either percussion or tremulation or a combination of both (Stewart and Sandberg, Chapter 12). The Orthoptera sensu lato of course include many of the most obvious insect singers, crickets, grasshoppers, bushcrickets, etc., in which loud airborne signals are widely used and well studied (recently by Gerhard and Huber, 2002 and in this book by Heller, Chapter 9, and Bukhvalova, Chapter 14).

Liliiij mm

Bushcrickets (Kalmring et al., 1966) and in Type 5 auditory fibres in crickets (Eibl and Huber, 1979), whereas the fibres most likely to originate in the subgenual organ of crickets show completely different arborisation (Eibl and Huber, 1979 Esch et al., 1980). Recent investigations (Zorovic et al., 2004) indicate that MFR receptor neurons are presynaptically inhibited as described for crickets (Poulet and Hedwig, 2003), locusts (Burrows, 1996) and stick insects (Stein and Sauer, 1999). Wolf and Burrows (1995) proposed that central neurons contribute to presynaptic inhibition of proprio-receptive sensory neurons.

Cave Communities

Cave-inhabiting vertebrates are relatively well-known. Cave bats, swiftlets (including the edible-nest swiftlet of Southeast Asia), and the oil bird in South America use echolocation to find their way in darkness. Pack rats in North America, along with cave crickets and other arthropods also roost in caves. Large colonies of these cave-nesting animals carry in huge quantities of organic matter with their guano and dead bodies. This rich food resource forms the basis for specialized communities of microorganisms, scavengers, and predators. Arthropods comprise the dominant group of larger animals in this community, and like their vertebrate associates, most species are able to disperse outside caves to found new colonies.

Conclusions

On sound propagation are much more important than in a close range system (Romer, 1993). Fine temporal elements of the song may be lost due to reverberations and scattering. Sounds of conspecifics and other species may mask the signal partly or completely. In acoustic long-range systems with many animals singing simultaneously, it will be more difficult to extract information about the quality of a signaller than if a female hears only one or a few males. It may also be difficult, especially at high densities, to connect the properties of a special acoustic signal with the particular male the female contacts. In accordance with these considerations, song patterns in bushcrickets are generally quite simple. In many genera similar types of amplitude modulation are found. Most common are trills, chirps of various duration and double syllable patterns (see Figure 9.1), although the recognition of the latter can be based on the combined duration of both syllables of a pair (Schul, 1998)....

Molecular Clocks

Fleischer, McIntosh and Tarr (1998) superimposed these geological ages onto phylogenetic trees to calibrate the rates of sequence divergence in several endemic taxa. This provided them with molecular clocks of 1.9 per cent per million years for the yolk protein gene in Drosophila, 1.6 per cent per million years for the cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian honeycreeper birds (Drepananidae), and a variable rate of 2.4-10.2 per cent per million years for parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNA valine in Laupala crickets. The authors stressed that these estimates were based on a number of assumptions, including the establishment of populations very near to the time at which individual islands were formed, and there having been very little subsequent movement between populations. The surprisingly high rates for a ribosomal-RNA encoding gene that were calculated for Laupala crickets suggested that in this species at least one or more of the assumptions were not met.

Maria Bukhvalova

Acoustic segregation between different higher taxa also takes place. Investigators in a Bornean lowland rain forest showed that they were able to attribute most songs accurately either to vertebrates (mammals, birds and frogs) or to different insect groups (crickets, katydids and cicadas), even when the singer was not visible. This was possible because each such group had its own acoustic appearance (Riede, 1996). Acoustic activity of singing cicadas in the studied area was diurnal while crickets started singing at dusk, followed by the strictly nocturnal katydids. Thus, there is a pronounced temporal segregation between these taxa.

Lineage sorting

Hybrid zones are very common some estimates suggest that they may subdivide as many as one-half to one-third of species (Hewitt, 1989). The geographical extent of these zones varies dramatically, with some that are only a few metres wide and others that span many kilometres. Hybrid zones are often linear, such as the one represented by a narrow line throughout central Europe that subdivides the two house mouse species Mus musculus and M. domesticus (Hunt and Selander, 1973). There are also mosaic hybrid zones, which are patchy in their distribution. The field crickets Gryllus pennsylvanicus and G. firmus in eastern USA interbreed throughout a well-studied mosaic hybrid zone (Harrison, 1986 Rand and Harrison, 1989). Initial studies suggested that the two species were largely allopatric, with G. firmus populations near the coast giving way to G. pennsylvanicus populations further inland, and a roughly linear hybrid zone at their juncture. This interpretation was later modified when G....

Animals

We captured male individuals of 10 species Anolis by hand or noose at different field sites between November 2001 and June 2002. A. carolinensis, A. sagrei, A. distichus, and A. garmani were captured at mainland U.S. sites (A. carolinensis at New Orleans, LA all the others at Miami, FL) A. grahami, A. lineatopus, and A. valencienni were caught in Jamaica (Discovery Bay), and A. evermanni, A. gundla-chi, and A. pulchellus were caught in Puerto Rico (El Verde). We transported these species back to the laboratory at Tulane University. Upon arrival in the laboratory, we kept the lizards in pairs in 40-L terraria lined with leaf litter. We fed them live crickets dusted with calcium three times a week and sprayed them with water daily.

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