Natural Dietary Supplements
Some minerals (roughly in order of abundance calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, chlorine, sulfur) are present or required in relatively large amounts (mg g) and are called macroelements. Those that are required in small amounts (Ug g) are called trace elements (iron, zinc, manganese, copper, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, cobalt, fluoride, chromium). So far very little is known about the mineral requirements for wildlife species, but Robbins (1983) has provided a summary of available information. It is assumed that most native species are adapted to their environment and so can tolerate the levels of minerals found there (Fielder 1986). However, some mineral deficiencies have been observed. Selenium deficiency increases the mortality of juvenile, preweaned mammals (Keen and Graham 1989). Flueck (1994) supplemented wild black-tailed deer in California and increased preweaning fawn survival threefold.
Ecologically designed human communities might incor porate microfarms with controlled cultivation in a greenhouse or bioreactor. On a tiny land area, a commu nity could meet a significant portion of its protein and vitamin requirements from microalgae, thus freeing crop land for community recreation or reforestation.
Domestic production of primary resources differs from imported commodities (raw materials and semi-manufactures) with regard to the related hidden flows as shown in Table 23.2. In 1995, imports of fossil fuels (excluding electricity) into the EU-15 had a significantly lower hidden flow ratio than the domestic extraction of energy resources. This resulted from the fact that the imports were mainly oil and natural gas. Those materials are associated with lower hidden flows than lignite and hard coal, which contribute significantly in some of the member states. Imports of metal resources were associated with 17 times higher hidden flows than domestic extraction. Ore mining within the EU-15 plays only a minor role. It concentrates on deposits with relatively high efficiency of extraction and lower volume burden to the environment. Most of the base metals, such as iron, aluminum and copper, are imported. Precious metals with the highest ratio of unused to used extraction are mostly brought...
Hydroponics (water culture) The growth of plants in liquid culture solutions rather than soil. The solutions contain the correct balance of all the essential mineral requirements. The method is used commercially, especially for glasshouse crops, and also in experimental work in determining the effects of mineral deficiencies.
Various unsaturated fatty acids in microalgal biomass are important as dietary supplements to prevent various diseases (e.g., high plasma cholesterol, hypertension, etc.) and to boost the immune system. Microalgal biomass also contains all the important vitamins, especially the B1 B2, and C vitamins and nicotinic acid. The variety of carotenoids is greater than in higher plants - -carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin, etc. Among them, the oxygenated xanthophylls, astaxanthin and
There has been recent concern regarding a possible hepatotoxicity associated with the consumption of Kava-containing dietary supplements. In 2002, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a consumer advisory regarding use of Kava dietary supplements because of at least 25 reports of liver injury associated with Kava use (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition FDA 2002). Although there is one report of liver injury involving consumption of a synthetic kavapyrone (kavain), the role of kavapyrones
Teas would not be much good without natural phenolics, and volumes have been written about the antioxidant properties of phenolics in teas, grapes (especially the skins), cranberries, and blueberries, and vegetables such as broccoli, onions, spinach, and kale. Dietary supplements of plant-derived phenolics are prevalent, and reported to function at least in part as antioxidants. In this capacity, they are presumed to react with, and deactivate, free radicals (a molecule containing an unpaired electron). Free radicals can cause cellular damage by oxidizing lipid, protein, and nucleic acids. Thus, the neutralization of free radicals by natural phenolics that have antioxidant properties is presumed to be the molecular basis for at least some of their health benefits.
Various unsaturated fatty acids in microalgal biomass are important as dietary supplements to prevent various diseases (e.g., high plasma cholesterol, hypertension, etc.) and to boost the immune system. Microalgal biomass also contains all the important vitamins, especially the B1, B2, and C vitamins and nicotinic acid. The variety of carotenoids is greater than in higher plants - ft carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin, etc. Among them, the oxygenated xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, are massively used both as colorants and antioxidants in aquacultures (fish and Crustacea).
By 10,000 years ago African hunter-gatherers had successfully developed tools and microlithic blade technology for acquiring food. Axes, projectile points, and traps were used in forest areas in the Middle and Later Stone Ages. In the savanna, Later Stone Age hunters were expert at lethal weaponry, killing animals with bow and arrow, finely carved multipronged spears, and poisons. Small, roving bands of hunters tracked and felled large prey species of hoofed mammals. Small game was caught in snares and traps or hunted with dogs and clubs, and reptiles and bird eggs provided a dietary supplement. Bones were used to make tools, ornaments, and weapons, while hides were fashioned into clothing and carrying bags. Contemporary hunter-gatherers obtain more than half of their nutrition from gathered foods. Even though plants are subject to seasonal unavailability and climatic cycles, they are more reliable and plentiful food sources than game animals. Men probably covered great distances on...
Most scavenging is facultative in essence a dietary supplement. It is undertaken by a broad range of species. Most notably carnivores of all stripes, including the majestic birds of prey such as eagles, hawks and falcons but also other birds such as ravens and magpies canid, felid, ursid, and hyenid mammal predators snakes, lizards, and spiders all consume fresh carrion when it is found. After all, it does not make evolutionary sense (in terms of improving individual survival and reproduction) to pass up a free meal, one that effectively differs little from a hunted prey item, whenever it is encountered. The proportion of the diet that comes from carrion, however, can vary widely among carnivore species, making some species like hyenas and ravens seem close to being obligate in their scavenging. of individual deer during the spring period. Such purposeful scavenging appears to provide the deer with an important dietary supplement during a period when terrestrial food resources are in...