Reed Drying Beds

Reed bed drying technology is applicable to many small wastewater treatment plants. Reed beds use common reed plants such as phragmites australis or phragmites Table 15 Conventional sludge dewatering operations Table 15 Conventional sludge dewatering operations Waste AS 10-20 Mixture 15-30 Primary sludge 30-35 Difficult to remove fines in centrate Not cost-effective Waste AS 12-18 Primary sludge 25-30 Waste AS 20-25 Primary sludge 50 High pressure (689-1380 kPa) May need chemical conditioning...

Definition and Scope of Biological Control

Biological control is a form of pest control that uses living organisms (parasitoids, predators, or herbivorous arthro pods) to suppress a pest's density to lower levels. There are four kinds of biological control, two of which - classical biological control and augmentative biological control - are discussed in this article and two others - conservation biological control and biopesticides - that are discussed in Biological Control Models. Classical biological control is the deliberate importa...

Levels and Steps in Landscape Planning

Typically, landscape planning provides information about the existing qualities of the landscape and nature, which are considered to be nature or landscape potentials, and their value as well as their sensitivity to impacts, the existing and potential impacts on these poten tials, and the objectives and guidelines for the development ofthe landscape and nature, upon which proposed measures and development plans can be measured. With this information, landscape planning provides evaluation...

Biotic Resistance Hypothesis

The 'biotic resistance hypothesis' (Diversity Resistance Hypothesis, Species Richness Hypothesis) suggests a negative relationship between native species diversity and community invasibility. The evidence for biotic resis tance, that is, the negative relationship, comes largely from experimental work using synthetic assemblages varying in diversity. Interestingly, observational studies over larger areas mostly show a positive correlation between diversity and invasibility. This discrepancy is...

Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are complex and highly diverse ecosystems whose health is affected by both water and substratum quality. Watershed characteristics and estuarine state can greatly influence coastal coral reef community structure and function. Mangrove forests, wetlands and tidal flats can buffer the impacts of land based activities on coral reefs, and hence their ecological role is critical in reef protection. Human activities within watersheds that increase erosion, sedimentation, runoff, nutrient...

Valuable and Bioactive Compounds

Only plants synthesize PUFAs (linoleic, linolenic, arachi donic, and eicosapentaenoic acid). Therefore, microalgae supply whole food chains with these vital components. Microalgal PUFAs have a very promising biotechnologi cal market both for food and feed. For lipid based cosmetics like creams or lotions, ethanolic or supercritical CO2 extracts of microalgal bio mass are also gaining commercial importance, because they provide both nourishing and protecting effects to the skin. Table 1...

Gracilaria Cultivation

The red alga Gracilaria contributes approximately 66 of the total agar production, according to the most recent estimates. This contribution is likely to increase as culti vation expands and technologies are developed to increase the gel strength of Gracilaria. Although more than 150 species of Gracilaria have been reported from different parts of the world, the taxonomy of the genus is still in flux. Gracilaria is widely distributed all over the world, but most of the species are reported to...

Coral Reef Ecohydrology Model

The sustainable development of coastal waters and coral reefs is dependent on development policies for land and water resources. To quantify this dependency, it is necessary to understand the key biological and oceano graphic processes governing the health of these coastal ecosystems. These processes are then incorporated in a Figure 3 (a) The ecology submodel for tropical Darwin Harbour, Australia. SSC, suspended solid concentration N, nutrients P, phytoplankton (two dominant species with...

Plant Pathogens

Conservation biological control of plant pathogens is in the early stages of development but the technology shows great potential. The most recent work has been done on the grapevine Botrytis cinerea system where the pathogen's life cycle was disturbed and levels of primary inoculum were reduced through the use of organic mulches or of cover crops, mulched in situ. Levels of primary inoculum from vine debris were reduced under mulch, through an increase in the activity of soil biota, both...

Invasive Species Control

Restoration of Natural Conditions Following Anthropogenic Disturbance Often the best time to attempt to control an invasive species is immediately after the first individual establishes, and before it sets seed. Attentive natural areas managers and restorationists often have stories of killing that first invading purple loosestrife plant in its first year of growth in a newly restored wetland. Some countries (e.g., New Zealand) request that citizens report the first sightings of various...

P

P450 gene, See cytochrome P450 Pacific cupped oysters, 200, 206 Pacific Island region organic farming, 214t paddy fields, 44 Palau, 167 Pan-European Ecological Network (PEEN), 315, 316f paralytic shellfish poisoning, 204, 271 biological control organisms, 305, 305t parasitoids biological control organisms, 124, 127, 131 parental care Parkia biglobosa, 266 parrot feather, 221, 221f partial differential equations (PDEs), 239 particulate organic matter (POM) aquaculture waste production, 320f...

Landscape Functions

Traditionally, the concept of landscape functions has been considered in the landscape planning system of Germany and German speaking countries. According to that concept, landscape has the following functions (1) Production (economic) functions (biomass production, water supply, suitability of nonrenewable resources) (2) Regulatory (ecological) functions (regulation of mate rial and energy fluxes, hydrological and meteorological functions, regulation and regeneration of populations and...

R

Erosion rates, 275, 276f stream ecosystems, 116t Rallus longirostris levipes, 302 Ramsar Convention, 44 raphidophytes, 271 Rattus rattus, 300 raw sludge, 235t RDX riparian systems, 96, 97f coral reefs, 170f recycling, 3, 36 red algae 192f, 194f life cycle, 191 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Chile, 206 Israel, 206, 206f South Africa, 205 harmful algal blooms, 271 red cedar, 61-62 red mangrove, 62 redox (reductive-oxidative) processes...

B

Baccharis halimifolia, 61-62 Bacillariophyta, See diatoms Bacillus spp., 132 Bacillus thurengiensis, 132 bacteria sewage treatment systems, 140 bacterial mats, 320f invertebrate pest management, 133 sewage sludge, 233, 235t sewage treatment systems, 140 wetland ecosystems, 51 Bactris gasipaes, 262f Baltic Sea aquaculture waste production, 319 eutrophication processes, 269 hypoxia, 270 red tides, 272 wastewater treatment, 54 bananas agroforestry, 262f bare-root plants, 140 Batis spp., 62 Baumea...

Role of Plants in the Water Cycle Linkage among Evapotranspiration and Energy Fluxes Dissipation

Vegetation and water presence in the ecosystem sub stantially determine distribution of incoming solar radiation. In a landscape with sufficient supply of water, the prevailing part of the incoming radiation can be dissipated through vapor of water (latent heat), whereas in the dry landscape most of the incoming radiation must turn into sensible heat (see Figure 5). ET reflected as latent heat represents the most dynamic part of the whole system. Due to the fact that transpiration is a...

Canada

An interdisciplinary team of scientists from the University of New Brunswick in Saint John and from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans in St. Andrews has been working together on an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kelp (Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta) blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) IMTA project in the Bay of Fundy since 2001 (Figures 4 and 5). The project, initially supported by AquaNet, the Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence for Aquaculture, is now moving from the R& D...

Harmful Algal Blooms

Cultural and natural eutrophication have both contribu ted to changes in nutrient input to coastal waters, and led to an overall increase in nutrient availability and an alteration in nutrient composition. The first result of these changes is often an increase of total algal biomass and shifts in species composition potentially leading to secondary disturbance such as harmful algal blooms (HABs). HAB species range from marine, brackish to freshwater organisms and cover a broad range of phylo...

Stream Ecology and Threats to Ecological Integrity

Ecology is the study of interactions among living organ isms and their environment. In every ecosystem, species composition and abundance at every level, from primary producers to top consumers to decomposers, are regu lated by environmental (abiotic) conditions. Compared to most other aquatic ecosystems, stream environments are more dynamic and characterized by nonequilibrium con ditions. When compared to small streams, larger streams and rivers are typically more stable in regard to...

The Riparian Zone and Its Elements

Riparian Buffer Zones and Buffer Strips Based on the experiences of environmental management and landscape planning in several countries, the riparian zone (river corridor) can be divided into several parts depending on topography, soil conditions, the width of the natural flood plain area, natural vegetation zones, etc. In an ideal (undisturbed natural) case, the structure of riparian zones and strips can be coherent with the com plexity of natural river corridors. In addition to this...

Interconnection of Water Landscape and Society The Impact of Humans on Water Cycle

Water is an integral part of the landscape and cannot be separated from landscape management which is still often neglected. Sufficient supply of drinking water, and water for industrial and irrigation purposes, have always been at the center of the human interest. Depletion of water resources and destruction of vegetation cover have led to vast socioeconomic problems as well as the decline of whole societies (Mesopotamia, North Africa, and India). Water is and always will be a limiting source,...

Attempts to Manage and Reduce Waste Discharges

Since the early development of modern aquaculture in Western countries i.e., culture of high trophic high value species using artificial feeds , several attempts to reduce waste discharges have been tested. The first approach to reduce environmental effects of fish waste is related to site selection. Sites have been chosen based on hydrodynamic conditions and logistical infrastructures to optimize the growth rate of the cultivated species, while Figure 2 Model comparing main biogeochemical...

Lake Restoration Methods

The most important methods are listed below and a brief description of their application, advantages, and disad vantages is given. 1. Diversion of wastewater has been extensively used, often to replace wastewater treatment. Discharge of efflu ents into an ecosystem which is less susceptible than the one used at present is, as such, a sound principle, which under all circumstances should be considered, but quan tification of all the consequences has often been omitted. Diversion might reduce the...

Environmental Impact Assessment and Application Part

Eia Project Phases

D Kominkova, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction Overview of EIA Techniques Definition of Impact Conclusion Definition of EIA Further Reading Stages in EIA Process During last few centuries the environment has been impacted by anthropogenic activities with increasing speed. The impact has caused loss of natural character and function of many components of the environment. The tendency of changing natural systems is...

Invasibility Level of Invasion and Propagule Pressure

Ecological Relationships

In general, disturbance, nutrient enrichment, slow recov ery rate of resident vegetation, and fragmentation of successionally advanced communities promote plant inva sions. Few alien species invade successionally advanced, undisturbed plant communities some that do are the shade tolerant species Alliaria petiolata, Microstegium vimi neum, and Sapium sebiferum . Most alien species are excluded during the first 10 or 20 years of uninterrupted secondary succession, or over longer periods of...

Natural Wetlands

Nitrogen Transformation Wetlands

B Gopal and D Ghosh, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Wetland Functions and Values Plant Assimilation Wastewater Treatment Plant Assimilation Substrate Adsorption Decomposition Physical Settlement and Accretion Further Reading Wetlands are defined variously to include a wide spectrum of habitats where the land is inundated by shallow water or is saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration every year that water becomes the...

Innovative Practices Need to be Developed

Energy Flow Imta

The challenge, then, is how to increase the production capacity of an existing site increased production per area without exceeding the ecosystem assimilative capacity when the other options have shown their limitations. One of the possible answers is to increase the level of technol ogy involved in the production of seafood so that food and waste handling systems are all actively considered in the system design and operation protocols from the start, and are modeled after natural ecosystems...

Dune Restoration

Coastal dunes are a natural feature of sandy shorelines and are present in most temperate regions. They are among the most dynamic landforms, shifting with the winds and storm tides. Dunes are part of the near shore environment that change seasonally and with episo dic storms. They serve as reservoirs of sand to re nourish the beach during storms as erosion of sand transports it offshore where it is deposited on sand bars to be returned gradually by the tides. Formation of dunes requires a...

State of the Practice

Contaminated Soil Blue Color

Despite the paucity of ecological engineering optimization of phytoremediation applications to minimize costs and to achieve full sustainability, a number of ad hoc applications have been successful. These are summarized in Table 1. Wetlands prevent all discharge of explosives contaminated groundwater at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Figure 3 . Fertilized grass plantings and marshes of Spartina alterniflora and S. patens have cleaned up petroleum spills at a number of sites and are overdue for...

Ws with Emergent Macrophytes

These systems typically consist of basins or channels, with some sort of subsurface barrier to prevent seepage, soil or another suitable medium to support the emergent vegeta tion, and water at a relatively shallow depth flowing through the unit Figure 2a . The shallow water depth, low flow velocity, and presence of the plant stalks and litter regulate water flow and, especially in long, narrow channels, ensure plug flow conditions. The water surface is above the sediment, litter, and soil, but...

Functions of Riparian Buffer Zones

Riparian Buffer Zone

Riparian buffer zones and buffer strips have the following essential functions Figure 4 1 to filter polluted overland and subsurface flow from intensively managed adjacent agricultural fields 2 to protect the banks of water bodies against erosion 3 to filter polluted air, especially from local sources e.g., big farm complexes, agrochemically treated fields 4 to avoid the intensive growth of aquatic macrophytes via shading by canopies 5 to improve the microclimate in adjacent fields 6 to create...

Territorial Ecological Networks

Estonia Ecological Network

The concept and implementation of territorial ecological networks greenway networks at the landscape level is considered to be the leading principle in ecological land scape planning. The widely used European level Table 2 Scales of landscape planning in Germany Table 2 Scales of landscape planning in Germany Region regional district or county Adapted from Kiemstedt H 1994 Landscape Planning Contents and Procedures, 124pp. Bonn Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Minister of...

Further Reading

Ahern J 1995 Greenways as planning strategy. Landscape and Urban Planning 33 131 155. Bastian O and Schreiber K F eds. 1999 Analyse und okologische Bewertung der Landschaft, vol. 2, 564pp. Heidelberg Auflage, Gustav Fischer Verlag. Baudry J and Merriam G 1988 Connectivity and connectedness Functional versus structural patterns in the landscapes. In Schreiber K F ed. Connectivity in Landscape Ecology. Proceedings of the 2nd International Seminar of IALE, pp. 23 28 Munster Munstersche...

Ecological Engineering Overview

S E Jorgensen, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. What Is Ecological Engineering Further Reading The most used definition of ecological engineering employs the following formulation ecological engineer ing is defined as the design of sustainable natural and artificial ecosystems that integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both. It requires, on the one hand, that we understand nature and ensure a sustainable...

Agroforestry in Practice

Silvopasture Brazil

A large number of traditional agroforestry systems have been recognized from different parts of the world. Each is a specific local example of the association or combination of the components, characterized by the plant species and their arrangement and management, and environmental Table 1 Major agroforestry practices in the tropics and the temperate regions Tropical agroforestry Alley cropping hedgerow intercropping Multipurpose trees MPTs on farms and rangelands Silvopasture Grazing systems...

Tidal Wetland Restoration

Tidal wetlands consist of salt marshes, found mostly in temperate regions, and mangroves, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Marshes are dominated by grasses, notably the genus Spartina, rushes Juncus, Schoenoplectus , sedges, forbs, and shrubs. Mangroves, salt and flood tolerant trees, and shrubs that inhabit the intertidal zone, are dominated by the genera Rhizophora, Avicennia, Laguncularia, Conocarpus, Sonneratia, and others. Similar to dunes, tidal marshes were used for centuries...

IMTA as an Ecological Engineering Approach

With the intention of reducing the inputs of wastes from aquaculture to the environment, four main approaches have been developed. The first considers isolating an operation from the surrounding environment by devel oping enclosed systems at sea. These 'bag' techniques have been developed and tested over the recent decades, but costs and technological issues, especially in regions of strong tidal regimes, have prevented their development and adoption at commercial scale. The second approach is...

Ecological Engineering and Environmental Management

The Environmental Tools Used For Ecology

S E Jorgensen, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Rachel Carson's book A Silent Spring started in the mid 1960s the first green wave. Pollution problems were able to attract the political attention in line with other impor tant problems such as social problems, traffic problems, economic problems, and educational problems that the society would have to deal with and solve. The pollution problems, often called the environmental problems, could be...