A

abalone aquaculture, 318 eutrophication control, 270 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Chile, 207, 322, 323f China, 208 Israel, 206, 206f, 321 South Africa, 205, 205f, 206f, 321 Abies grandis, 284 Abies procera, 284 abiotic environments stream restoration, 113 Abramis brama, 80 Abrona spp., 59 Acacia mearnsii, 298 Acacia nilotica, 266 Acacia spp.

invasive species, 297 Acer rubrum, 49t Achray forest, Scotland, 282 freshwater ecosystems surface waters, 72 groundwater, 72 lake ecosystems control methods biological neutralization, 84 catchment neutralization, 81 chemical neutralization, 81 external methods, 81 in-lake strategies, 81 freshwater lakes, 72, 81 pH

lake ecosystems, 72, 81 soils lake ecosystems, 72 stream ecosystems, 115-116, 3251, 329 acid mine drainage constructed wetlands, 154, 155f phytoremediation, 230f Acinetobacter spp., 235t acorns, 262f Acorus calamus, 48t, 148 Acorus spp., 147

activated sludge systems, 231-246

aerobic digested sludge, 235t, 243, 244t anaerobic digested sludge, 235t, 243, 244f, 244t chemically conditioned sludge, 235t composted sludge, 235t control methods, 240, 241t heat treated sludge, 235t

Activated Sludge Models (ASMs), 233 classifications, 241t modeling strategies, 240 nutrient removal mechanisms, 236, 239f pretreatment processes, 236, 238t primary sludge, 235t primary treatment processes, 236, 238t raw sludge, 235t secondary sludge, 235t secondary treatment processes, 236, 238f, 238t settling and clarification processes, 237, 239f,

240f, 240t sludge processing methods basic concepts, 241, 242f conditioning processes, 244 dewatering and drying processes, 244, 245t global production, 242t immersion drying, 245 reed drying beds, 244 stabilization processes, 243, 244f, 244t thickening and flotation processes, 243, 243f, 243t sludge/sewage sludge categories, 235t characteristics, 233, 235t composition, 234t definition, 232

microorganisms, 233, 235t, 236f settability tests, 241t sludge technologies, 232 wastewater treatment plants, 234, 237f adaptability

See also complex systems Adriatic Sea eutrophication processes, 269 hypoxia/anoxia effects, 270 red tides, 272 advection Aegean Sea, 272

Aegopodium podagraria, 106, 107f, 109f nitrogen cycle anammox process, 50 denitrification, 342, 342f fixation processes, 342, 342f sewage treatment systems, 140 aerobic digested sludge, 235t, 243, 244t Africa invasive species, 125, 293 organic farming, 214t, 214t Ageratina adenophora, 293 aggregation techniques environmental impact assessments, 19-20 acidification processes, 72 agroforestry, 259-268

background information, 259 characteristics global practices, 259, 260t homegardens, 259, 260t, 262f intercropping, 259, 260t, 261f shaded perennial-crop systems, 259, 260t, 262f silvopastoral systems, 259, 260t, 262f ecological engineering, 266, 267f ecological impact, 263 ecosystem services carbon storage, 265, 267f environmental benefits, 265, 267f food production, 266, 267f general discussion, 264 landscape biodiversity, 265, 267f medicinal plants, 266 soil productivity/conservation, 264, 267f water quality, 265, 267f future research areas, 267 integrated practices, 263 multipurpose trees, 260t, 263 buffer zones, 96, 97f constructed wetlands, 154, 347, 348f ecosystem health indicators, 312f estuarine ecosystems, 163-164 eutrophication processes, 72 basic concepts drainage paradigm, 337, 338t land cover changes, 338-339 organic matter losses, 337-338, 338f solar radiation, 336, 337f water cycle, 334f, 335, 336, 337f fertilization eutrophication processes, 72 nitrogen cycle land-use controls, 116t aggregation techniques (continued) heavy metal concentrations, 52t hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t intercropping, 259, 260t, 261f estuarine ecosystems, 164 water resource management, 332-333 modern systems, 130 nitrogen cycle river systems/runoff, 116t pest control biological control organisms, 123-129 biopesticides, 132

integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, 132 pollution control, 347, 348f, 348t salinization, 332-333 characteristics, 275, 276f cropping operations, 252t land management factors tillage, 249 seedbed preparation, 252t seeding operations, 252t stream ecosystems, 325t, 326, 328 water management strategies fishpond systems, 333f, 333-334, 334f sustainable development, 339, 339f wastewater, 142f mathematical models agroforestry, 259-268, 32-33, 35, 371 background information, 259 characteristics global practices, 259, 260t homegardens, 259, 260t, 262f intercropping, 259, 260t, 261f shaded perennial-crop systems, 259, 260t, 262f silvopastoral systems, 259, 260t, 262f ecological engineering, 266, 267f ecological impact, 263 ecosystem services carbon storage, 265, 267f environmental benefits, 265, 267f food production, 266, 267f general discussion, 264 landscape biodiversity, 265, 267f medicinal plants, 266 soil productivity/conservation, 264, 267f water quality, 265, 267f economic factors, 281 phytoremediation, 227 future research areas, 267 integrated practices, 263 multipurpose trees, 260t, 263 Agropyron cristatum, 298 Agrostis capillaris, 91 Agrostis stolonifera, 91 air quality environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 28 hydropower dam construction and operation, 26t, 27t air seeders, 252t Alabama (USA), 156t Alaria esculenta, 203 alder trees, 298 Alexandrium fundyense, 204 algae algal blooms estuarine ecosystems, 269 eutrophication control, 270 harmful algal blooms, 163,

271, 319 impoundment threats, 174 aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f biomass production, 176

coral-algal mutualism, 273

hydropower dam construction and operation,

26t, 27t integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA),

196, 206 lake ecosystems eutrophication processes, 72 food web manipulations, 79, 80f, 82t macroalgae cultivation, 186-197 cultivation systems, 186 Eucheuma/Kappaphycus spp. cultivation systems, 192, 194f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 general discussion, 186, 197 Gracilaria spp. cultivation methods, 192, 192f cultivation systems, 191 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 196

Laminaria spp.

cultivation systems, 193, 195f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 Porphyra spp.

conchocelis culture, 188, 188f conchospore formation and release, 188f, 189

cultivation systems, 187, 188f, 190f, 191f harvesting processes, 190, 191f life cycle, 187-188 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 seeding operations, 188f, 189 sporeling stage, 188f, 189, 190f, 191f production data, 187t Ulva spp., 186 Undaria spp.

cultivation systems, 194, 196f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 microalgae cultivation, 176-186 biologically important strains agricultural applications, 183 Chlorella spp., 182 Dunaliella spp., 182 general discussion, 182 Haematococcus spp., 183 Spirulina spp., 182 biomass production, 176 biotechnological applications bioactive compounds, 184 general discussion, 184 most exploited microalgae, 184t nutrition sources, 184 biotechnological principles general discussion, 177 light, 177

monitoring methods, 177 temperature, 177 cultivation systems closed/semiclosed outdoor photobioreactors, 180, 181 f, 182f general discussion, 178 heterotrophic fermentors, 180 laboratory cultivation methods, 178, 178f open outdoor systems, 179, 179f ecological applications general discussion, 185 wastewater treatment, 185 future research areas, 185 harvesting processes, 183, 183f stream ecosystems carbon sources, 326 channelization modifications, 327-328 component interactions, 117f nutrient resources, 329 successional assemblages, 116f wetland ecosystems, 51 See also cyanobacteria algicides, 85 alien plants, 292t aliphatic hydrocarbons Alismataceae, 294 alkalinity, 235t alkanes, 157

alley cropping practices, 259, 260t Alliaria petiolata, 296 alligators alligator weed, 157 Alnus incana, 107f, 108f Alternanthera philoxeroides, 49t, 52t, 157 alternative technology, 3 aluminum (Al)

lake ecosystems, 72 phosphorus-binding processes, 75 phytoremediation, 217t sludge composition, 234t Amaranthaceae, 294 Amazon River/Amazon Basin land cover changes, 338-339 wetland ecosystems, 44 Ambrosia spp., 59 American ash, 261 f American beach grass, 59, 61 American dunegrass, 59 amides, 234t amino acids sludge composition, 234t ammonia (NH3)

aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f buffer zones, 42, 43 stream ecosystems, 328 terrestrial nitrogen cycle wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f microbial processes nitrogen cycle ammonium (NH4)

constructed wetlands, 155t stream ecosystems, 116t, 328 terrestrial nitrogen cycle wastewater treatment, 147f wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f Ammophila arenaria, 59 Ammophila breviligulata, 59, 279 Ammophila spp., 298 amnesic shellfish poisoning, 271 amphibians (Amphibia)

wetland ecosystems, 45 Amphibolis griffithii, 70 amphipods (Amphipoda) function

Anabaena sphaerica, 233, 235t, 236f Anabaena spp.

bioactive compounds, 184 anaerobic bacteria sewage treatment systems, 140 anaerobic digested sludge, 235t, 243, 244f, 244t Anagyrus kamali, 125 anammox process microbial processes, 50 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f anatoxins, 271 anchovies estuarine ecosystems, 164 androgens

Andropogon gayanus, 298 Andropogon virginicus, 298 anilines, 217t animals animal detritus fecal detritus, 116t animal husbandry., See farming systems; livestock operations associations stream ecosystems, 329 dune ecosystems, 60 ecological catastrophes wildlife populations pesticides, 329 environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 29 hydropower dam construction and operation, 26t, 27t hypoxia/anoxia effects, 270-271 invasive species, 304t landscape functions, 308, 309t mining impacts, 91t tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 trace elements

See also invertebrates; vertebrates Anisoplia austríaca, 133 Annona muricata, 124 anoxic environments coastal zones, 270 stream ecosystems, 329 wastewater treatment, 140 anthropogenic activities aquatic environments, 72 coral reefs, 273

environmental impact assessments, 13-21, 21-31 analytical techniques evaluation methods, 20 general discussion, 19 predictive methods, 19-20 background information, 13, 21 bridge construction and operation air quality, 28 aquatic environments, 29 climate, 28 general discussion, 26 mitigation measures, 30 noise levels, 29 plant communities, 29 socioeconomic impact, 30 soils and terrain, 28 water quality, 28 wildlife populations, 29 definitions, 14

environmental management plan (EMP), 24 general discussion, 20 hydropower dam construction and operation, 24, 25t, 26t, 27t key stages appraisal completion, 15f, 18 general discussion, 15 project examples, 171 reviewing process, 15f, 18 scoping process, 15, 15f, 16t screening process, 15, 15f, 16t, 17t, 22 mitigation measures, 22-24, 30 structural characteristics, 22, 23 f terminology, 13

valued environmental components (VECs), 22 estuarine ecosystems, 66, 269 invasive species, 290 stream ecosystems dams, 330-331, 331f physical impacts, 325t stream restoration, 113-119 basic concepts, 113 component interactions, 116, 117f ecological challenges, 115, 115t ecological engineering, 113 general discussion, 119 Kissimmee River, Florida (USA), 117, 117f physical constraints chemical toxicants, 115-116, 116t general discussion, 115 successional assemblages, 116, 116f restoration goals, 114 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 water cycle, 332 water quality problems, 72 See also humans antibiosis, 132

endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 329 stream ecosystems, 3251, 329 Apache trout, 301 Aphanizomenon spp., 184 Apostichopus japonicus, 208 aquaculture, 198-210 business practices, 198 diversification, 199, 203f eutrophication processes, 270 geographic expansion, 199 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) basic concepts, 196, 201, 201f, 202f Canada, 203, 203f, 204f Chile, 206, 207f, 321, 323f China, 208, 208f, 322 ecological interactions, 209 food safety issues, 204 Israel, 206, 206f, 321 land-based systems, 321 Norway, 321 public attitudes, 204-205 regulatory mechanisms, 208 South Africa, 205, 205f, 206f, 321 sustainable aquaculture, 201 waste reduction methods, 321 intensification possibilities, 199 macroalgae, 186-197 cultivation systems, 186 Eucheuma/Kappaphycus spp. cultivation systems, 192, 194f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 general discussion, 186, 197 Gracilaria spp. cultivation methods, 192, 192f, 194f cultivation systems, 191 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 integrated multitrophic aquaculture

(IMTA), 196 Laminaria spp.

cultivation systems, 193, 195f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 Porphyra spp.

conchocelis culture, 188, 188f conchospore formation and release,

188 f, 189 cultivation systems, 187, 188f,

190f, 191f harvesting processes, 190, 191f life cycle, 187-188 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 seeding operations, 188f, 189 sporeling stage, 188f, 189, 190f, 191f production data, 187t Ulva spp., 186 Undaria spp.

cultivation systems, 194, 196f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 microalgae, 176-186

biologically important strains agricultural applications, 183 Chlorella spp., 182 Dunaliella spp., 182 general discussion, 182 Haematococcus spp., 183 Spirulina spp., 182 biomass concentrations, 176

biotechnological applications bioactive compounds, 184 general discussion, 184 most exploited microalgae, 184t nutrition sources, 184 biotechnological principles general discussion, 177 light, 177

monitoring methods, 177 temperature, 177 cultivation systems closed/semiclosed outdoor photobioreactors, 180, 181f, 182f general discussion, 178 heterotrophic fermentors, 180 laboratory cultivation methods, 178, 178f open outdoor systems, 179, 179f ecological applications general discussion, 185 wastewater treatment, 185 future research areas, 185 harvesting processes, 183, 183f production changes, 200 production changes, 200 seafood consumption, 198 seaweed, 186-197 waste products, 318-324

biogeochemical cycles, 319, 320f characteristics, 319

ecological engineering approaches, 321 ecological impact, 318 general discussion, 323 integrated multitrophic aquaculture

(IMTA), 321 limiting factors, 322 waste reduction methods, 319 wastewater, 142f aquafarming, 36 aquatic ecosystems, 33, 35 aquatic environments anthropogenic impacts, 72 environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 29 hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t, 26t, 27t invasive species, 293, 296 nitrogen cycle river systems/runoff, 116t phytoremediation, 217t riparian zones, 96, 97f stream restoration, 113-119 basic concepts, 113 component interactions, 116, 117f ecological challenges, 115, 115t ecological engineering, 113 general discussion, 119 Kissimmee River, Florida (USA),

117, 117f physical constraints chemical toxicants, 115-116, 116t general discussion, 115 successional assemblages, 116, 116f restoration goals, 114 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 water quality problems, 72 See also intertidal environments; oceans; riparian systems aquatic organisms riparian systems, 96, 97f aquifers, 227 Arabidopsis thaliana, 225 arable land riparian systems, 99f See also agroecosystems archeophytes, 291 Argentina organic farming, 213f arid environments

Arizona (USA), 301 arkshell, 208 Armenia, 52t Armería marítima, 91 Army Ammunition Plant, Alabama (USA), 221

Army Ammunition Plant, Iowa (USA), 217t, 227, 228f

Army Corps of Engineers (US), 64 Arrhenatherum elatius, 306-307 arsenic (As)

phytoremediation, 217t, 225, 230f stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 Artemisia spp., 59 arthropods (Arthropoda)

invertebrate pest management, 133 Arthrospira platensis, 182 artificial reefs, 321 Artocarpus altilis, 262f Arundo donax, 45, 298 Asia invasive species, 293 organic farming, 214t, 214t ASSETS model, 269 astaxanthin, 184, 184t Asteridae, 294

Aswan Dam, Egypt, 332-333 Atlantic Ocean nutrient cycling, 269 Atlantic salmon integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Canada, 203, 203f Chile, 206, 207f, 207f atmosphere greenhouse gases hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t, 26t, 27t water cycle, 336 hydropower dam construction and operation,

26t, 27t mining impacts, 91 t atrazine, 156-157, 217t, 329 Atriplex patula, 140 augmentative biological control historical background, 128 insectaries harvest, storage, and shipping parameters, 128 mass rearing system, 128 natural enemy cultivation, 128 release instructions, 128 safety factors, 129 successful use extent indoor crops, 128 outdoor crops, 129 Australia constructed wetlands, 153-154 coral reefs, 170f ecohydrologic applications, 163, 167f eutrophication processes, 272

integrated water resource management, 333

invasive species, 293

land cover changes, 338-339

microalgae cultivation, 179

organic farming, 213f, 214t seagrasses, 69

sludge production, 242t sustainable development strategies,

339, 339f wastewater treatment, 146 Austria organic farming, 213f wetland ecosystems, 52t See also Hopfield networks sewage sludge, 233, 235t stream ecosystems, 326, 327-328 Avicennia germinans, 62

Avicennia spp., 62 Azadirachta indica, 266 azapiracid shellfish poisoning, 271 Azolla spp., 50

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