B

Baccharis halimifolia, 61-62 Bacillariophyta, See diatoms Bacillus spp., 132 Bacillus thurengiensis, 132 bacteria anaerobic bacteria sewage treatment systems, 140 bacterial mats, 320f invertebrate pest management, 133 sewage sludge, 233, 235t sewage treatment systems, 140 wetland ecosystems, 51 Bactris gasipaes, 262f Baltic Sea aquaculture waste production, 319 eutrophication processes, 269 hypoxia, 270 red tides, 272 wastewater treatment, 54 bananas agroforestry, 262f bare-root plants, 140 Batis spp., 62 Baumea articulata, 49t Baumea-Isachne spp., 54 bayberry, 279

Bay of Fundy, Canada, 203,

203f, 204f beach grass, 59, 61, 279 beavers phytoremediation, 221 Beckmannia syzigachne, 52t beetles as biological control, 85 Beggiatoa spp., 320f Belgium constructed wetlands, 153-154, 158 organic farming, 213f sludge production, 242t soil loss by harvesting, 254t zinc mining, 92 constructed wetlands, 157 phytoremediation, 217t billabongs, 44 billfish stream ecosystems metallic compounds, 329 pesticides, 329 bioassessments aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) activated sludge systems, 233 constructed wetlands free water surface flow (FSW), 152, 154,

155t, 159t horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) comparison studies, 143 treatment efficiency, 141, 141 t,

142t, 143t vegetated beds, 135 vertical subsurface flow (VF), 145t, 146f wastewater treatment, 46 watershed management, 344-345 biocoenosis acidification processes, 72 salinity/salinization, 73 components biocurtain, 217t coastal zones, 268 agroforestry, 263

biotic resistance hypothesis, 297 ecosystem health indicators, 312f environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 29 hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t invasive species, 297 landscape analysis, 310 mining site restoration, 94 organic farming, 214 richness measurements invasive species, 304t species diversity stream ecosystems, 330 stream ecosystems, 330 wetland ecosystems, 45 biodynamic farming, 211 bioengineering, 6 biofilms wetland ecosystems, 47f, 50f, 51 biofilters, 141, 209, 217t, 321-322 biofungicides, 132 biogeochemical cycles agroforestry, 263 aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f biological cycles carbon sinks agroforestry, 265, 267f carbon source, 326 stream ecosystems, 326 ecological design principles, 9 iron cycle anammox process microbial processes, 50 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f denitrification aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f sewage treatment systems, 140, 147f stream ecosystems, 328 estuarine ecosystems, 269 fixation processes soils, 264, 267f river systems runoff, 116t watershed management constructed wetlands, 348t, 348-349, 349f critical source areas, 343, 343f efficiency assessments, 344 nutrient transport, 341, 342f Porijogi River catchment, Estonia, 105, 107f, 108f, 345, 346f, 346t, 347t bioinsecticides, 133 biological agriculture, 211 See also organic farming biological control, 123-129, 37t agroecosystems, 130 augmentative biological control historical background, 128 insectaries harvest, storage, and shipping parameters, 128 mass rearing system, 128 natural enemy cultivation, 128 release instructions, 128 safety factors, 129 successful use extent indoor crops, 128 outdoor crops, 129 benefits, 123-124 biopesticides applications general discussion, 132 invertebrate pest management, 133 plant pathogens, 132

general discussion, 133 insects, 132 characteristics, 123 classical biological control ecological justification, 124 economic factors, 126 natural enemies, 126, 127 pink hibiscus mealybug, 124, 124f process guidelines documentation, 126 efficiency assessments, 126 host specificity, 126 native range, 126 natural enemies, 126 pest identification and taxonomy, 126 quarantine methods, 126 release and colonization, 126 target pest, 125 safety factors, 127 successful use extent, 126 water hyacinths, 125 conservation biological control general discussion, 130, 133 herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs),

131 insects, 130 plant pathogens, 131 general discussion, 129 invasive species, 305, 305t invertebrate pest management, 133 lake ecosystems, 85 Biological control and biopesticides, 37t biological invasions plants, 290-299

background information, 290 characteristics, 290 community invasibility biotic resistance hypothesis, 297 causal relationships, 296f fluctuating resources theory, 297 habitat compatibility, 297 invasional meltdown, 297 levels of invasion, 296, 296f environmental impact, 297, 298f geographical patterns, 292 lag phase, 293

long-distance dispersal (LDD), 293, 295 management strategies, 298 naturalization-invasion continuum,

290, 291f residence status, 291 species invasiveness evolutionary mechanisms, 294-295 evolution of increased competitive ability

(EICA), 295 general discussion, 294 invasiveness theories, 295 long-distance dispersal (LDD), 295 phenotypic plasticity, 294 residence time, 294 taxonomic affiliation, 294 Tens Rule, 294 spread rates, 293 terminology, 292t biological systems phytoremediation, 2171 wetland ecosystems, 50f activated sludge systems, 231-246

aerobic digested sludge, 2351, 243, 244t anaerobic digested sludge, 235t, 243, 244f, 244t chemically conditioned sludge, 235t composted sludge, 235t control methods, 240, 241t, 241t heat treated sludge, 235t

Activated Sludge Models (ASMs), 233 classifications, 241t modeling strategies, 240 nutrient removal mechanisms, 236, 239f pretreatment processes, 236, 238t primary sludge, 235t primary treatment processes, 236, 238t raw sludge, 235t secondary sludge, 235t secondary treatment processes, 236, 238f, 238t settling and clarification processes, 237,

239f, 240f, 240t sludge processing methods basic concepts, 241, 242f conditioning processes, 244 dewatering and drying processes, 244,

2451, 245t global production, 242t immersion drying, 245 reed drying beds, 244 stabilization processes, 243,

244f, 244t thickening and flotation processes, 243, 243f, 243t sludge/sewage sludge categories, 235t characteristics, 233, 235t composition, 234t definition, 232

microorganisms, 233, 235t, 236f settability tests, 241t sludge technologies, 232 wastewater treatment plants, 234, 237f, 237f stream ecosystems, 329 biomanipulation, 7f, 7-8, 33, 35, 79,

82t, 85, 88f biomarkers estuarine ecosystems, 165f lake ecosystems, 80, 81f, 82t landscape functions, 308, 309t stream ecosystems, 329 tidal wetlands, 65f biomitigation, in aquaculture, 209 biopesticides applications general discussion, 132 invertebrate pest management, 133 plant pathogens, 132 general discussion, 133 insects, 132 bioremediation basic concepts, 216 classification, 217t biosorption, 217t biotechnology, 6 biotic resistance hypothesis, 297 birds (Aves)

aquaculture, 321 estuarine ecosystems, 67f songbirds tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 stream ecosystems

Kissimmee River, Florida (USA), 117 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 waterfowl aquatic wetlands, 45 stream ecosystems

Kissimmee River, Florida (USA), 117 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 wetland ecosystems, 45 bitter dock, 140 bitterns, 119 bitter panicum, 59, 61 bivalves (Bivalvia)

estuarine ecosystems, 67f, 165f, 166, 167f, 270

eutrophication control, 270 hypoxia/anoxia effects, 271 blackbody radiation, See solar radiation/solar energy black elder, 229f black mangrove, 62 black oak, 279 black pepper, 262f black rats, 300 Black Sea ecosystem dead zones, 272 estuarine ecosystems, 164 eutrophication processes, 269 hypoxia/anoxia effects, 270 red tides, 272 blastofiltration, 217t bleaching coral reefs anthropogenic impacts, 273 blue flag iris, 139-140 blue-green algae, See cyanobacteria blue mussels, 203, 203f Blue Revolution, 200 bogs characteristics, 44, 45f importance, 54 bog turtles, 304t Bolboschoenus spp., 49t Borneo, 283f boron (B)

phytoremediation, 217t Borrichia spp., 62 Bosmina spp.

Bothynoderes punctiventris, 133 Botrytis cinerea, 131, 131f botrytis rot, 131, 131f, 132 Boucherville, Canada, 156f branching burreed, 279 Brassicaceae, 294 Brassica juncea, 217t, 225 Brassica napus, 217t Brassica tournefortii, 296 Brazil eutrophication processes, 272 wastewater treatment, 146, 148f Brazilian elodea, 161 bread fruit, 262f bream, 80 brevetoxins, 271 brine, 217t bromine (Br)

methyl bromide (C^Br), 2171 Bromus tectorum, 293, 298 brook trout, 301 brown algae harmful algal blooms, 271 brown trout, 301

BTEX (benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene), 157, 217t See also Bacillus thurengiensis Bubo bubo, 93 Buelach, Switzerland, 237f population-level characteristics buffer zones, 41-43, 32-33, 34, 37t ammonia (NH3) emissions, 42, 43 classification, 43 functions, 41 landscapes, 43

pesticide prohibited areas, 43 regulatory mechanisms, 41 riparian systems characteristics, 43 critical source areas, 343 efficiency assessments, 344 Porijogi River catchment, Estonia, 345, 346f,

346t, 347t, 350f schematic diagram, 344f buffer zones (continued)

selection criteria, 41, 42f selection criteria, 41, 42f wildlife habitats, 43 bulrush constructed wetlands, 154 tidal wetlands, 62 bunchgrass, 284 bur reed, 148 butternut canker, 300 buttonwood, 62

C38 canal, 117, 117f Cabomba caroliniana, 161 cacao, 262f, 265 Cactoblastis cactorum, 305 cactus invasive species control, 305 cadmium (Cd)

lake ecosystems, 72 phytoremediation, 217t, 225 sludge composition, 234t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 wetland ecosystems, 52t Cakile maritima, 59 calcium (Ca)

carbonates (CaCO3)

lake ecosystems, 81 phosphorus-binding processes, 75 sludge composition, 234t wetland ecosystems, 48t, 51 California (USA) constructed wetlands, 159f estuarine ecosystems, 272 microalgae cultivation, 179 red tides, 272 Calluna spp., 48t Canada constructed wetlands, 156f, 157, 161f integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA),

203, 203f, 204f macroalgae cultivation, 186 salmon aquaculture, 199 canalization, 85 carbohydrates sludge composition, 234t carbon (C)

carbonates (CaCO3) lake ecosystems, 81 carbon sinks agroforestry, 265, 267f carbon source, 326 stream ecosystems, 326 carbon dioxide (CO2) evapotranspiration, 337 water cycle, 337 carbon tetrachloride (CO4), 217t sludge composition, 234t Carex acutiformis, 48t Carex gracilis, 48t Carex lyngbyei, 304 Carex rostrata, 52t Carex spp., 59, 147, 157 Caribbean biological control organisms, 127 invasive species, 124, 124f carnivores (Carnivora)

hypoxia/anoxia effects, 271 carnivorous fish, 85 carob, 262

Carolina Bay, Virginia (USA), 92 carotenoids

Chlorella spp., 182 Dunaliella spp., 182, 184, 184t Spirulina spp., 182 carp aquaculture, 200

lake ecosystems, 80 Carpobrotus spp., 59, 294-295 Carswell Air Force Base, Texas

(USA), 221-222 Carter Creek, Texas (USA), 117 Caryophyllidae, 294 Castanea spp., 262 casual alien plants, 292t catalase, 184 caterpillars biological control organisms, 128 cattails constructed wetlands, 139-140,

154, 157 wetland ecosystems, 51 Centaurea solstitialis, 298 Central America invasive species, 293 Ceratonia siliqua, 262f Ceratophyllum demersum, 49t, 161 cereal cockchafer, 133 cesium (Cs)

phytoremediation, 217t channelization stream ecosystems biological consequences, 327-328 physical impacts, 325t,

326, 327, 328f restoration methods, 117 Characeae, 161 Chara spp., 161

Charleston, South Carolina (USA),

156f, 157f Chasmanthium latifolium, 279 chaurs, 44 cheatgrass invasive species management strategies, 298 tropical ecosystems, 293 checklist techniques, 19-20 chemically conditioned sludge, 235t chemical oxygen demand (COD) constructed wetlands horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), 141,

141t, 142t, 143t vertical subsurface flow (VF), 144, 145t chemical toxicants aquatic environments, 72 phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems anthropogenic threats, 325t ecological restoration, 115-116, 116t metallic compounds, 329 chemoautotrophs, 216 Chesapeake Basin (USA), 343f, 344f Chesapeake Bay (USA) estuarine ecosystems restoration methods, 67 hypoxia/anoxia effects, 270 nutrient cycling, 269 chestnut trees, 262 Chile fish/fisheries, 199, 318, 318f integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA),

206, 207f, 321, 323f macroalgae cultivation, 187t Mediterranean ecosystems salmon aquaculture, 199, 318f China constructed wetlands, 157 estuarine ecosystems, 165 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA),

208, 208f, 322 macroalgae cultivation, 186,

187t, 190f microalgae cultivation, 179 organic farming, 213f sewage treatment systems, 54 wetland ecosystems, 52t Chinese yams, 304 chironomids/Chironomidae chisel plows, 2481, 249, 252t Chlamydomonas spp., 180 Chlamys farreri, 208, 208f, 322 chlordane, 329 Chlorella spp.

microalgae cultivation biological importance, 182 biomass production, 176 biotechnological applications,

184, 184t heterotrophic fermentors, 180 open outdoor cultivation systems, 179 chlorine (Cl)

sludge composition, 234t chlorobenzene, 217t chlorophyll high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) ecosystems, 270 Chlorophyta/Chlorophyceae biomass production, 176, 182 harmful algal blooms, 271 phytoremediation, 216 choke cherry, 279 Chondrus crispus, 186 chotts, 44 chromium (Cr)

phytoremediation, 217t sludge composition, 234t wetland ecosystems, 52t Chrysopa spp., 129 cichlid fishes, 125 ciguatera fish poisoning, 271 ciliates wetland ecosystems, 51 Cinchona pubescens, 297 Cirsium oleraceum, 109f Citrus spp., 124, 128 Cladium spp., 54 cladocera

See also Daphnia spp. Cladophora spp., 329 clapper rail, 302 classical biological control ecological justification, 124 economic factors, 126 natural enemies, 126, 127 pink hibiscus mealybug, 124, 124f process guidelines documentation, 126 efficiency assessments, 126 host specificity, 126 native range, 126 natural enemies, 126 pest identification and taxonomy, 126 quarantine methods, 126 release and colonization, 126 target pest, 125 safety factors, 127 successful use extent, 126 water hyacinths, 125 clay impoundment threats, 174

Clean Water Act (USA), 269-270 cleaner technology, 3, 4f Clemmys muhlenbergii, 304t water cycle, 336 environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 28 hydropower dam construction and operation, 26t, 27t greenhouse gases water cycle, 336 landscape functions, 308, 309t See also global warming climbing ferns, 304 Clostridium perfringens, 154 coal mining impacts, 90 characteristics, 59 dune profile characteristics, 62f ecological restoration, 61, 61f, 62f environmental constraints, 60, 60t general discussion, 59 vegetation communities characteristics, 59 forest zone, 60, 60f pioneer zone, 59, 60f shrub zone, 59-60, 60f Coastal Wetland Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act (CWPPRA, 1990), 65 coastal zones ecohydrology, 162

ecological management strategies, 268-275 biodegradation, 268 eutrophication control methods coral reefs, 273, 273f dead zones, 272 harmful algal blooms, 163, 271 hypoxia/anoxia effects, 270 influential factors, 269 restoration methods, 274 Coastal zone management, 37t Coastal zone restoration, 371 cobalt (Co)

phytoremediation, 2171 sludge composition, 234t coccinellids, 125 Coffea spp., 262f, 265 coffee agroforestry, 262f, 265 coherence landscapes, 310, 311f coliform bacteria, 154 colloids, 234t

Colocasia esculenta, 139-140, 262f Cologne, Germany, 90, 92 Colorado River, 327, 330-331, 331f Commelinidae, 294 common reed, See Phragmites australis common waterweed, 161 community ecology invasive species, 304t Lotka-Volterra competition model plant pathogens, 132 ecosystems, 6 modeling studies ecological modeling, 6 composted sludge, 235t conceptual models See also feedlots conifers/coniferous forests

Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon (USA), 284 Connecticut (USA), 156t landscape ecology, 310 Conocarpus erectus, 62 Conocarpus spp., 62 conservation biological control general discussion, 130, 133 herbivore-induced plant volatiles

(HIPVs), 131 insects, 130 plant pathogens, 131 conservation of mass and energy, 9 constructed ecosystems, 33, 36 constructed wetlands, 34, 37t classification, 152, 152f, 347, 348f ecological engineering, 7, 7t, 344, 344f free water surface flow (FSW), 150-162

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 152,

154, 155t, 159t classification, 152f, 153f duckweed, 159 emergent macrophytes acid mine drainage, 154, 155f basic concepts, 152f, 153, 153f industrial waste, 157, 157f landfill leachates, 157, 157f livestock operations, 155, 156f, 156t municipal wastewater treatment, 154f pollutant removal, 155t runoff, 156f, 156-157, 157f floating emergent macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 157, 158f floating-leaved macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 160, 160f free-floating macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 158 functionality, 152 historical background, 151 nitrification/denitrification, 152-153, 160 structure, 152

submerged macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 160,161f total suspended solids (TSS), 152, 155t, 159t vegetated beds, 152 water hyacinths, 158, 159f, 159t horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), 134-150 background information, 134, 152, 152f chemical oxygen demand (COD), 141, 141t,

142t, 143t comparison studies, 143, 143t cost analyses, 142 design parameters basic design, 134f biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 135,

141, 141t, 1421, 143, 143t general discussion, 134 grit chambers, 135, 135f, 136f plastic liners, 137, 137f pretreatment processes, 135,

135/, 136f removal mechanisms, 140 schematic diagram, 134f substrate materials, 137, 137f treatment efficiency, 141,141t, 142t,

143f, 1431 vegetated beds, 135, 136f, 141t vegetation, 139, 139f, 140f wastewater distribution, 137, 138f wastewater types, 142f water-level control, 138-139,139f watershed management, 347, 348f hybrid constructed wetlands general discussion, 147, 152, 152f horizontal flow-vertical flow (HF-VF)

systems, 149, 150f vertical flow-horizontal flow (VF-HF)

systems, 147, 149f, 150 watershed management, 347, 348f phytoremediation, 227, 228f subsurface water flow, 347, 348f surface flow/runoff, 347, 348f, 348t vertical subsurface flow (VF)

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 145t, 146f chemical oxygen demand (COD), 144, 145t design parameters, 143, 144f general discussion, 143, 152, 152f nitrogen submodel, 147f phosphorus submodel, 148f single-house treatment system, 145f treatment efficiency, 145, 145t, 145t vegetated beds, 146f watershed management, 347, 348f vertical upflow, 146, 148f wastewater treatment, 54, 347 watershed management agricultural runoff, 347, 348f

Estonia, 349, 350/ nutrient transport, 349/ willow-based zero discharge systems, 146, 148/

Constructed wetlands, surface flow, 371 construction industry environmental impact assessments, 171 contamination studies stream ecosystems, 329 phytoremediation, 217t soils, 7-8

See also endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) Convolvulaceae, 294 coontails, 161 copepods (Copepoda) lake ecosystems, 72 phytoremediation, 217t, 225 sludge composition, 234t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 wetland ecosystems, 51, 52t coral-algal mutualism, 273 degradation rates, 163, 164/ ecohydrology applications, 167

dominant biological processes, 170/ dominant physical processes, 169/ general discussion, 166 suspended solid concentration (SSC), 170/ ecological interactions disturbances, 169/, 273 predators, 167, 170/, 273 estuarine ecosystems, 67/, 70,

163, 164/ eutrophication control methods,

273, 273/ recruitment effects, 170/ stressors coral bleaching anthropogenic impacts, 273 cordgrass, 302, See Spartina alterniflora corkbark oaks, 262/, 280 corn biological control, 128 See also maize corn borers, 129 corridors landscape planning, 313, 314/ costal marine systems, 34 cost-benefit analyses environmental impact assessments, 20 cotton, 128

cottonwood trees, 217t, 225 Cowal Forest District, Scotland, 282 cowlilies, 160 crabs estuarine ecosystems, 67/ hypoxia/anoxia effects, 270-271 Crassostrea gigas, 200, 206, 208,

208/, 322, 323/ creatine, 234t crop production cropland salinization, 332-333 pest control methods biopesticides, 132 phosphorus cycle conservation tillage, 253 cropping operations, 252t erosion rates, 275 land management factors tillage, 249 seedbed preparation, 252t seeding operations, 252t tillage translocation/erosion, 249/, 250, 252t,

253/ water erosion, 250 wind erosion, 250 tillage crop production (continued) definition, 248 erosion conservation tillage, 253

cropping operations, 252t erosion rates, 275

seedbed preparation, 252t seeding operations, 252t tillage translocation/erosion, 249f, 250,

252t, 253f water erosion, 250 wind erosion, 250 land improvement practices general discussion, 249 land forming, 250 land leveling, 250 surface drainage, 250 terraces, 250

water and sediment control basins, 250 soil-landscape restoration, 254 soil loss by harvesting, 254, 254t soil movement, 247-255 characteristics, 247, 248t conservation tillage, 253 general discussion, 247 horizontal movement, 247, 249f,

251, 253f primary tillage, 249, 252t secondary tillage, 249, 252t tillage systems, 253 vertical movement, 247, 249f Croton spp., 59

crown-of-thorns starfish, 167, 170f, 273 crude oil, 2171 crustaceans (Crustacea) aquaculture, 200, 202f hypoxia/anoxia effects, 271 cryptogenic species, 292t Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, 125 Cryptosporidium spp., 174 cultivators, 248t, 249, 252t cutthroat trout, 301 cyanobacteria bioactive compounds, 184 biomass concentrations, 176 biomass production, 182 cyanotoxins, 271 harmful algal blooms, 271 impoundment threats, 174 lake ecosystems eutrophication processes, 72 phytoremediation, 216 sewage outfalls, 330 sewage sludge, 233, 235t stream ecosystems, 329 cyanotoxins food-borne illnesses, 271 Cylindrospermopsis spp., 174-175 Cynara cardunculus, 290 Cyperus involucratus, 49t Cyperus papryrus, 44, 45, 48t,

139-140, 157 Cyprinus carpio, 80 cytochrome P450

plant genomes, 223 Czech Republic microalgae cultivation, 179f, 181f, 182 organic farming, 213f wastewater treatment basic design, 134f plastic liners, 137f pretreatment processes, 135f substrate materials, 137f treatment efficiency, 143f, 143t vertical flow-horizontal flow (VF-HF)

systems, 149f, 150 wastewater distribution, 138f water-level control, 139f water management strategies drainage paradigm, 337, 338t fishpond systems, 333f, 333-334, 334f

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