Conclusion

Conservation biological control and biopesticides have great potential in organic agriculture or in IPM pro grams. These systems are complementary and elements of them can be integrated into conventional pest management systems. The two techniques do have their limitations, however, and most agricultur alists need to adjust their perception of the technologies, especially biopesticides. Currently, the latter are viewed as substitutes for agrochemicals, and the products are expected to operate at the same speed and under the same wide range of environmental conditions as conventional products. Agriculturalists require education about the biology of the biopesticide and the target pest. They need to set up pest monitoring systems, develop a network of contacts to assist in decisions concerning when and how to apply biopesticides, and realize the limitations of the technology. Limitations include of being effec tive only pre infection, of needing different biopesticides for particular pests, of environmental conditions, etc.; these are important influences on the efficacy of control. Acceptance of the limitations and the gaining of appropriate knowledge should allow biopesticides and conservation biological control tech niques to be integrated into agroecosystems to produce a more sustainably produced, higher value product. This approach can enhance the contribution of ecosystem services to pest, weed, and disease con trol, satisfying increasing environmental, energy, human health, and marketing demands.

See a/so: Classical and Augmentative Biological Control.

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