CWs with VF CWs were originally designed by Seidel as pretreatment units before wastewater treatment in HF beds. However, Seidel did not use VF wetlands as a single stage. The earliest full scale systems of this type were so called infiltration (or percolation) fields with VF through a soil or sand medium and discharged via drain. This design was used to treat the wastewater from recreation site outside the municipal network in Lauwersoog in the Netherlands in 1975. The system consisted of a preliminary settling/distri bution ditch, four infiltration compartments, and an effluent ditch. The infiltration ditches with a net surface area of 1.3 ha were planted with P. australis and were provided with a drainage system 0.55 m beneath the ground level.
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