D

Dactylis glomerata, 107f Dactylopius ceylonicus, 305 dambos, 44 dams estuarine ecosystems, 164, 166,

168f, 169f stream ecosystems, 326, 330-331, 331f water management strategies, 332-333 Danthonia californicum, 306-307 Daphnia spp.

food web manipulations, 80 Darwin, Charles invasive species, 290 Darwin Harbor, Australia, 163, 166, 167f

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), 3 phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 toxicity, 225 dead zones, 272 mortality rates See also mortality studies decision-tree models estuarine ecosystems, 163-164 invasive species, 304t wetland ecosystems, 47f deer forest ecosystems, 284 defense strategies stream ecosystems, 326, 328 dehesa system, 259, 260t, 262f Delaware Bay (USA), 65 Delphi method, 20 demographic analysis invasive species, 293 demographic hypothesis, 293 biogeochemical cycles, 342, 342f constructed wetlands, 152-153, 160 riparian systems, 98, 99f, 100f, 101f,

102f, 109f sewage treatment systems, 140 stream ecosystems, 328 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f Denmark buffer zones, 42, 42f forest plantations, 227

integrated multitrophic aquaculture

(IMTA), 209 sewage treatment systems horizontal flow-vertical flow (HF-VF)

systems, 149, 150f schematic diagram, 144f single-house treatment system, 145f sludge production, 242t vegetated beds, 135 wastewater distribution, 138f, 144f water-level control, 139f willow-based zero discharge systems, 146, 148f desert ants landforms playas, 44 See also dune ecosystems destratification methods, 79, 82t detergents sludge composition, 234t detritivores estuarine ecosystems, 164f, 165f,

166, 167f estuarine ecosystems, 67f, 166, 167f shallow impoundments, 172 wetland ecosystems, 47f diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, 271 diatoms harmful algal blooms, 271 dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), See DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) dichloroethane, 217t dichloroethene, 217t differential algebraic equations (DAEs), 239 dilute sludge volume index (DSVI), 241t dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S2)

acidification processes, 72 dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2171 dinoflagellates aquaculture waste production, 319 harmful algal blooms, 271 Dinophysis spp., 271-272 Dioscorea alata, 262f Dioscorea oppositifolia, 303, 304 diseases coral reefs, 273 impoundment threats, 175 disk plows, 2481, 249, 252t dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), 47f dissolved organic matter (DOM) aquaculture waste production, 320f wetland ecosystems, 47f dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), 50f dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), 47f dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations anoxic environments, 270 Distichlis spicata, 62 distributed parameter models, 240, 241t disturbances agroforestry, 263 coral reefs, 169f, 273 ecological design principles, 10 forest dynamics, 283 harmful algal blooms, 272 invasive species, 304, 304t resilience, 11 dolomite (CaMg(CO3^), 81 Dominica, 338-339 domoic acid integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 204

downy mildew, 131 dredge material, 275 Dreissena polymorpha, 303 driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model landscape ecology, 311, 312f driving forces, 311, 312f drought acidification processes, 72 impoundment threats, 174 invasive species, 297 duck potato, 139-140 duckweed constructed wetlands, 159 shoreline erosion control, 279 Dunaliella salina, 182 Dunaliella spp.

microalgae cultivation biological importance, 182 biomass production, 176 open outdoor cultivation systems, 179 characteristics, 59 dune profile characteristics, 62f ecological restoration, 61, 61f, 62f environmental constraints, 60, 60t general discussion, 59 vegetation communities characteristics, 59 forest zone, 60, 60f pioneer zone, 59, 60f shrub zone, 59-60, 60f

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