Introduction

Lake restoration is obviously more applicable when the pollutants are threshold rather than nonthreshold agents, although it has also been applied for nonthreshold pollu tants. Development of methods to restore lakes which are eutrophied has been ofparticular interest because eutrophi cation is a very general and widely distributed lake problem. It is therefore not surprising that many lake and reservoir restoration methods focusing on the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs have been developed. In addition, it is in most cases not possible to solve the eutrophication problem completely without application of ecological engineering methods, including restoration methods.

The selection of a lake restoration method requires quantification of the problem. We are unable to measure and compare the effects of the various alternatives without quantification. Modeling is the most powerful tool to quan tify an environmental problem and the effects of the possible solution methods. It is therefore recommended always to develop models for the lake before a final selec tion of the restoration method is made, particularly because there is a wide spectrum of methods available and a combination of two or more methods may be the best solution.

An overview of ecological engineering methods applied to lake restoration is presented below.

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