L

lacebugs, 127 lacewings, 129 lactic acid fermentation characteristics, 44 Laguncularia racemosa, 62 Laguncularia spp., 62 Lake Annone, 85 Lake Bled, 85, 86/, 87/ lake ecosystems algae eutrophication processes, 72 food web manipulations, 79, 80/, 82t water quality problems acidification, 72, 81 eutrophication, 72, 85 general discussion, 72 salinization, 73 toxic substances, 73 lake-impoundment comparisons, 171, 171 / restoration methods, 85-90, 72-85 acidification control methods biological neutralization, 84 catchment neutralization, 81 chemical neutralization, 81 external methods, 81 in-lake strategies, 81 applications biomanipulation, 79, 82t, 88/ general discussion, 85 hypolimnetic water, 7/, 7-8, 86/ non-point pollution, 87/, 88/ siphoning techniques, 7/, 7-8, 87/ submerged vegetation, 89/ eutrophication control methods aeration/oxygenation processes, 76,

77/, 82t biomanipulation, 7/ constructed wetlands, 7/ hypolimnetic withdrawals, 7/, 7-8, 78, 82t in-lake strategies, 74/, 75/, 82t nitrate additions, 77, 82t phosphorus reduction strategies, 7/, 74,

75/, 76/, 82t physical/biological structure controls, 79, 82t principle strategies, 73, 73/ sediment capping, 77, 78/, 82t sediment dredging, 78, 82t general discussion, 85 physical/biological structure controls biological control, 85 biomanipulation, 79, 82t destratification, 79, 82t food web manipulations, 79, 80/, 82t macrophyte biomass control, 80, 81 f, 82t physical manipulation, 79 selection processes, 89 shallow lakes, 44, 45f water quality, 72 Lake Erie, 277 Lake Fure, 85 Lake Hald, 85

Lake Okeechobee, Florida (USA), 117, 265

Lake restoration, 371

Lake restoration methods, 37t

Lake Sobygaard, 85

Lake Trummen, 85

Lake Victoria, 85, 125

Lake Washington, 85

Laminaria japonica, 193, 200, 208,

208f, 322 Laminaria spp.

cultivation systems cultivation systems, 193, 195f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 lamnid sharks constructed wetlands, 154, 157, 157f heavy metal concentrations, 52t phytoremediation, 217t, 229f stream ecosystems, 329 wastewater, 142f landscapes, 308-317 buffer zones, 43 coherence, 310, 311f cultural/amenity functions, 308, 309t definition, 308

driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR)

model, 311, 312f ecological indicators, 311, 312f fragmentation effects, 310 functions, 308, 309t habitat functions, 308, 309t land cover evapotranspiration, 338-339 agroforestry, 265, 267f solar radiation, 336, 337f sustainable development strategies,

339, 339f water management, 332 landscape planning, 308-317 analytical guidelines, 313, 314t ecological engineering principles, 312 scale factors, 314t territorial ecological networks basic concepts, 313 corridors, 314f Estonia, 315f human footprint map, 315f land-use change organic farming, 214t mining impacts, 91 t pattern analysis, 310, 311f provisioning functions, 308, 309t regulation functions, 308, 309t watershed management, 341, 342f Landscape Planning, 34-35, 37t landslides

See also El NiƱo Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Lantana camara, 127, 293 larch trees, 282 Larix deciduas, 282 Lathyrus spp., 59 lawns, 116t leachate seepage lake ecosystems, 72 phytoremediation, 217t, 225 sludge composition, 234t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 wetland ecosystems, 52t leaves dune ecosystems, 61 Leersia hexandria, 52t Lemna gibba, 160 Lemna minor, 52t Lemna spp., 49t, 158, 159 Lemna trisulca, 85 Leopold matrices, 19-20 Lepidium latifolium, 298 Lesser Antilles, 305, 338-339 light microalgae cultivation, 177 stream ecosystems, 328 See also solar radiation/solar energy lignite, 90 limiting factors dune ecosystems, 60, 60t tidal wetlands, 60t, 62 linear models activated sludge systems, 240, 241t lipids microalgae cultivation, 184 Liriodendron tulipifera, 225 Littorella uniflora, 52t livestock operations buffer zones, 42

constructed wetlands, 155, 156f, 156t estuarine ecosystems, 163-164 Loch Lomond, Scotland, 282 locust bean tree, 266 Long Island Sound, New York (USA) eutrophication processes, 270 seagrasses, 69 long (open) water cycle, 334f, 335, 336f Lonicera spp., 298 Louisiana (USA), 54, 272 Ludwigia peploides, 49t lumped parameter models, 240, 241t Lupinus arboreus, 298 Lupinus spp., 59 lutein, 184, 184t Luxembourg, 242t Lygodium japonicum, 297 Lygodium microphyllum, 304 Lythrum salicaria biological control organisms, 305 characteristics, 301f ecosystem function shifts, 304, 304t introgressive hybrid species, 301, 301f mining site restoration, 94 physical control, 306 sewage treatment systems, 139-140 shoreline erosion control, 279

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