M

Maconellicoccus hirsutus, 124, 124f macroalgae, 35

estuarine ecosystems, 165f trace elements See also seaweed Macrocystis pyrifera, 322, 323f Macrocystis spp., 207, 207f

See also fungi macrophytes estuarine ecosystems, 67

hydropower dam construction and operation,

26t, 27t impoundment threats, 174 lake ecosystems biomanipulation, 79, 82t biomass control, 80, 81f, 82t eutrophication processes, 72 food web manipulations, 79, 82t restoration methods, 74f, 75f, 85 sediment dredging, 78 shading effects, 102f stream ecosystems, 326, 327-328 wastewater treatment background information, 134, 151-152, 152f characteristics, 139

design parameters, 134, 143

vertical flow-horizontal flow (VF-HF)

systems, 147 watershed management, 347, 348f wetland ecosystems, 47f, 50f magnesium (Mg)

sludge composition, 234t wetland ecosystems, 48t, 51 Magnolia virginiana, 49t maize intercropping, 261f See also corn Malaysia mangrove forests, 69 Malvaceae, 294 mammals (Mammalia) reproductive toxicity, 330 stream ecosystems, 330 wetland ecosystems, 45 managed resource systems, See adaptive management manganese (Mn)

constructed wetlands, 154-155 phytoremediation, 217t sludge composition, 234t wetland ecosystems, 52t Mangifera indica, 262f mangoes, 262f characteristics, 44, 45f environmental constraints, 60t estuarine ecosystems, 67f, 68,163-164,166,167f general discussion, 62

hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t importance, 54 invasive species, 297 salinity, 62

vegetation communities, 62 mannagrass, 157

manufacturing industries, environmental impact, 17t manure buffer zones, 42 Marasmius spp., 61 marcasite, 72, 81 mariculture, 200

See also aquaculture Marina Lake (USA), 278 Marine macroalgae, 37t marine organisms, See aquatic organisms marram grass, 59 Mars characteristics, 44, 45f importance, 54 riparian zones, 96, 97f

See also salt marsh ecosystems; tidal wetlands Marsilea mutica, 49t mathematical models impoundment management, 175 fish, 125

See also modeling studies environmental impact assessments, 19-20 See also fish/fisheries Max Planck Institute Process (MPIP), 147 mealybugs, 124, 124f, 128 medicinal plants, 266 Mediterranean Basin estuarine ecosystems, 164 invasive species, 293 Melaleuca quinquenervia, 298 Melinis minutiflora, 293, 298 mercury (Hg)

phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 Mersey River, 67

Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 298 mesic environments invasive species, 296 Mesozoic plants enzymatic reactions, 223 stream ecosystems, 328 metallophytes, 91, 92 metals/metallurgy environmental impact assessments, 171 heavy metal removal, 51, 52t mining impacts, 91t phytoremediation, 217t, 227 stream ecosystems, 325t, 329 wetland ecosystems, 51, 52t Metarhizium anisopliae, 133 Metchnikoff, Elie, 133 methane (CH4)

aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f methyl bromide (CH3Br), 217t methylmercury (CH3Hg), 329 metolachlor, 156-157 Michigan (USA), 171f microalgae aquaculture, 176-186

biologically important strains agricultural applications, 183 Chlorella spp., 182 Dunaliella spp., 182 general discussion, 182 Haematococcus spp., 183 Spirulina spp., 182 biomass concentrations, 176 biotechnological applications bioactive compounds, 184 general discussion, 184 most exploited microalgae, 184t nutrition sources, 184 biotechnological principles general discussion, 177 light, 177

monitoring methods, 177 temperature, 177 cultivation systems closed/semiclosed outdoor photobioreactors, 180, 181f, 182f general discussion, 178 heterotrophic fermentors, 180 laboratory cultivation methods, 178, 178f open outdoor systems, 179, 179f ecological applications general discussion, 185 wastewater treatment, 185 future research areas, 185 harvesting processes, 183, 183f production changes, 200 nitrogen cycle anammox process, 50 denitrification, 342, 342f fixation processes, 342, 342f tidal wetlands, 64, 64t wastewater treatment, 141 microcystins food-borne illnesses, 271 Microcystis spp.

microalgae cultivation, 180, 184 stream ecosystems, 329 Micronesia, 167 microorganisms sewage sludge, 233, 235t, 236f wastewater treatment, 141 Microstegium vimineum, 296 Mimosa pigra, 298 Mimulus guttatus, 91 Mine area remediation, 37t mining activities constructed wetlands, 154

ecological impact, 90, 91t mining wastes heavy metal concentrations, 52t lake ecosystems, 81 stream ecosystems, 329 wastewater, 142f phytoremediation, 217t, 227, 230f restoration methods, 90-95 alternative ecosystems, 92 biodiversity, 94 ecological services, 92 general discussion, 94 historical background, 90 naturally occurring vegetation, 91 terminology, 91 wetland ecosystems, 93 Misery Bay, Lake Erie (USA), 278 Mississippi Delta (USA), 54 Mississippi River geomorphology, 327 nutrient cycling, 269, 270, 272 tidal wetlands, 65 mites biological control, 128 predatory behaviors, 128 modeling studies

Activated Sludge Models (ASMs), 233 classifications, 241t modeling strategies, 240 complex systems ecological modeling, 6 control methods, 240, 241t distributed parameter models, 240, 241t driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model landscape ecology, 311, 312f ecosystems complex systems, 6 activated sludge systems, 240, 241t estuarine ecosystems, 165, 166, 167f eutrophication lake ecosystems, 89 geographic information systems (GIS)

constructed wetlands, 349 grazing tree growth versus stand density, 285f lagoon ecosystems restoration methods, 85 linear models activated sludge systems, 240, 241t logistic growth models lumped parameter models, 240, 241t mathematical models impoundment management, 175 neutral models differential algebraic equations

(DAEs), 239 partial differential equations (PDEs), 239 sewage treatment systems, 240

landscape analysis, 310 soils geographic information systems (GIS) constructed wetlands, 349 three-dimensional (3D) integrative models tree growth versus stand density, 285f moldboard plows, 248t, 249, 252t mollusks (Mollusca) aquaculture, 200, 202f hypoxia/anoxia effects, 271 reproductive toxicity, 330 stream ecosystems, 330 molybdenum (Mo)

phytoremediation, 217t Monastery Run, Pennsylvania (USA), 155f monoclonal antibodies, 222f Monodus spp., 183, 184t Montreal, Canada, 161f mortality studies harmful algal blooms, 271

hydropower dam construction and operation,

26t, 271

mosses bogs, 44

wastewater treatment, 51 wetland ecosystems, 51 MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl ether), 217t, 227 mudflats estuarine ecosystems, 67f Müller, Hans, 211

multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), 20 multicriteria analyses, 20 multipurpose trails, 278 multipurpose trees, 259, 260t, 263 Musa spp., 262f muskrats tidal wetlands, 64 mussels aquaculture, 199, 318, 318f as biological control, 85

integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA),

203, 203f, 322 metal contamination, 329 stream ecosystems, 327-328 mustard, 225

coral-algal mutualism, 273 Myocastor coypus, 64

See also nutria Myrica cerifera, 61-62 Myrica faya, 298 Myrica pensylvanica, 279 Myriophyllum aquaticum, 221, 221f Myriophyllum heterophyllum, 161 Myriophyllum spicatum, 301 Myrtaceae, 294 Mytilus chilensis, 200 Mytilus edulis, 203, 203f

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