N

Najas guadalupensis, 161 Nannochloropsis spp., 180, 183, 184t National Danish Nature Protection Act, 41 National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment

(USA), 269 National Recreation Trail, 278 native plants, 292t natural ecosystems, 33 naturalized plants, 292t natural landscape, 34 natural selection theory ecological design principles, 9 self-organization, 9 natural or constructed ecosystems, 32 natural wetlands, 37t

See also wetland ecosystems neem tree, 266 Nelumbo nucifera, 160 Neochetina bruchi, 125 Neochetina eichhorniae, 125 neré, 266 Netherlands constructed wetlands, 153 mining activities, 92 sludge production, 242t soil loss by harvesting, 254t net primary production (NPP)

agroforestry, 263 network methods environmental impact assessments, 19-20 neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, 271 Nevis, 305

New York, New York (USA), 52t New Zealand constructed wetlands, 157 invasive species, 301

organic farming, 213f wastewater treatment, 54, 146 Neyraudia reynaudiana, 52t nickel (Ni)

phytoremediation, 217t, 225 sludge composition, 234t Nicotiana spp., 225 Nile River floodplain ecosystems, 332-333 water management strategies, 332-333 Nitella spp., 161 nitriles, 217t Nitrobacter spp., 50 nitrobenzene, 217t nitroethane, 217t nitrogen (N)

ammonia (NH3)

aquaculture waste production,

319, 320f buffer zones, 42, 43 stream ecosystems, 328 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f ammonium (NH4)

constructed wetlands, 155t stream ecosystems, 116t, 328 wastewater treatment, 147f wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f biogeochemical cycles, 342, 342f constructed wetlands, 152-153, 160 riparian systems, 98, 99f, 100/,

101f,102f,109f sewage treatment systems, 140, 147f stream ecosystems, 328 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), 50f stream ecosystems, 328 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f lake ecosystems acidification, 72 nitrate additions, 77, 82t nitrate (NO3)

constructed wetlands, 155t lake ecosystems, 77, 82t stream ecosystems, 116t, 328 terrestrial nitrogen cycle wastewater treatment, 147f wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f nitric oxide (NO)

constructed wetlands, 152-153, 160 ecological roles stream ecosystems, 328 wastewater treatment, 140 microbial processes aerobic-anaerobic processes, 342, 342f stream restoration, 115-116, 116t wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f nitrite (NO2)

stream ecosystems, 328 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f anammox process microbial processes, 50 wetland ecosystems, 50, 50f aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f estuarine ecosystems, 269 fixation processes soils, 264, 267f river systems runoff, 116t watershed management constructed wetlands, 348t, 348-349, 349f critical source areas, 343, 343f efficiency assessments, 344 nutrient transport, 341, 342f Porijogi River catchment, Estonia, 105, 107f, 108f, 345, 346f, 346t, 347t particulate organic nitrogen (PON), 50f sludge composition, 235t nitrogen (N) ( continued )

stream ecosystems, 115-116, 116t, 328 tidal wetlands, 63 wetland ecosystems decomposition processes, 50 plant assimilation, 48t, 49, 49t removal mechanisms, 49, 50f nitromethane, 217t Nitrosomonas europaea, 235t Nitrosomonas spp., 50, 235t nitrotoluene, 217t nodularin, 271

nonindigenous species, See invasive species non-native species, See invasive species nori cultivation, 189, 190f North America biological control organisms, 127 constructed wetlands, 153-154, 155, 157 invasive species alien species, 300 geographical patterns, 293 introgressive hybrid species, 301 organic farming, 214t, 214t North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), 272 North Carolina (USA) dune ecosystems, 61, 62f red tides, 272 tidal wetlands, 65f wastewater treatment, 142f northern blue flag iris, 139-140 North Sea, 270 Norway constructed wetlands, 157 integrated multitrophic aquaculture

(IMTA), 321 salmon aquaculture, 199 Nostoc spp., 180 numerical methods differential algebraic equations (DAEs), 239 partial differential equations (PDEs), 239 Nuphar lutea, 160 nutria dune ecosystems, 60 tidal wetlands, 64 nutrient cycling aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f dune ecosystems, 59 ecological design principles, 9 estuarine ecosystems, 67f, 164f, 165f, 166,

167f, 269 invasive species, 304t riparian systems, 96, 97f, 99f runoff, 344 stream ecosystems anthropogenic threats, 325t water temperature, 328 watershed management, 341, 342f, 344, 344f wetland ecosystems, 54 Nuttall waterweed, 161 Nymphaeaceae, 294 Nymphaea spp., 160 Nymphyoides indica, 491 Nynashamn, Sweden, 154f Nyssa sylvatica, 49t

oak trees agroforestry, 262 oceans high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) ecosystems, 270 Ocracoke Island, North Carolina (USA), 61-62 Odocoileus spp., 284 Odum, Howard Thomas ecological engineering, 5, 8, 220, 324-325 Oenanthe javanica, 52t offset disk plows, 248t, 249, 252t offspring environmental impact assessments, 171

stream ecosystems, 329 phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 329 Olea europaea, 262f olive trees, 262 olivine (Mg2SiO4), 81 Oncorhynchus apache, 301 Oncorhynchus clarkia, 301 Oncorhynchus mykiss integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 206 invasive species, 301 Ondatra zybethicus, 64 ophiuroids, 271 Opuntia spinosissima, 305 Opuntia vulgaris, 305 Orchidaceae, 294 Oregon (USA) conifer forest ecosystems, 285f phytoremediation, 229f Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon (USA), 284, 284f organic farming, 36, 210-215, 37t background information, 210 basic principles, 211 biodiversity, 214 definition, 211 environmental impacts, 214 global distribution, 213, 214f, 214t importance, 211f inspection regulations, 212-213 labeling guidelines, 212 land-use categories, 214t organic logos, 212, 213f origins, 211

standards and regulations, 212 organic matter dissolved organic matter (DOM) aquaculture waste production, 320f wetland ecosystems, 47f fungal interactions lake ecosystems, 73 particulate organic matter (POM) aquaculture waste production, 320f wetland ecosystems, 47f stream ecosystems carbon sources, 326 ecological restoration, 115-116 Oryza sativa, 146, 225 oscillatory bifurcation

See also songbirds Ostrinia nubilalis, 129 otters stream ecosystems, 118 overfishing aquaculture, 318 overlay maps, 19-20 oxbow lakes, 44 oxidation-reduction reactions aquaculture waste production, 320f wetland ecosystems, 93 oxygen (O)

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) activated sludge systems, 233 constructed wetlands free water surface flow (FSW), 152, 154,

155t, 159t horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), 135,

141, 141t, 142t, 143, 143t vertical subsurface flow (VF), 145t, 146f wastewater treatment, 46 watershed management, 344-345 chemical oxygen demand (COD) constructed wetlands horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), 141, 141t, 142t, 143t vertical subsurface flow (VF), 144, 145t dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations anoxic environments, 270 lake ecosystems eutrophication processes, 72 oysters aquaculture, 200 eutrophication control, 270 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Chile, 206

China, 208, 208f, 322

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