P

P450 gene, See cytochrome P450 Pacific cupped oysters, 200, 206 Pacific Island region organic farming, 214t paddy fields, 44 Palau, 167

Pan-European Ecological Network (PEEN), 315, 316f

Panicum amarum, 59

Panicum maximum, 262f

Panicum virgatum, 279

Papaveraceae, 294

paralytic shellfish poisoning, 204, 271

parapatry biological control organisms, 305, 305t parasitoids biological control organisms, 124, 127, 131 parental care Parkia biglobosa, 266 parrot feather, 221, 221f partial differential equations (PDEs), 239 particulate organic matter (POM) aquaculture waste production, 320f wetland ecosystems, 47f particulate organic nitrogen (PON), 50f Passer domesticus, 300 Pastinaca sativa, 295 pasture land, 338t pathogens biopesticides, 132 dune ecosystems, 61 pest control methods, 131, 132 wetland ecosystems, 51 Patinopecten yessoensis, 208 Pavlova spp., 183, 184t peach palms, 262f Pearl River, China, 165 Pearsonia metallifera, 91 bogs characteristics, 44, 45f importance, 54 evapotranspiration, 338t fens characteristics, 44, 45f Pennisetum ciliare, 296 Pennsylvania (USA), 155f pennywort, 157 pentachlorophenol (PCP) phytoremediation, 2171 See also proteins Perca fluviatilis, 80 perch food web manipulations, 80 perchlorate, 217t peroxidase, 184 Perry Monument (USA), 278 pest control biological control, 123-129 agroecosystems, 130 augmentative biological control historical background, 128 insectaries, 128 successful use extent, 128

benefits, 123-124 biopesticides applications, 132 general discussion, 133 insects, 132 characteristics, 123 classical biological control ecological justification, 124 economic factors, 126 natural enemies, 126, 127 pink hibiscus mealybug, 124, 124f process guidelines, 125 safety factors, 127 successful use extent, 126 water hyacinths, 125 conservation biological control general discussion, 130, 133 herbivore-induced plant volatiles

(HIPVs), 131 insects, 130 plant pathogens, 131 general discussion, 129 invasive species, 305, 305t invertebrate pest management, 133 lake ecosystems, 85 invasive plants, 292t integrated pest management (IPM) strategies biopesticides, 132 pesticides biopesticides, 132 buffer zones, 43

endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 329 lake ecosystems, 73 phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 3251, 329 riparian systems, 96, 97f See also invasive species constructed wetlands, 157 crude oil, 217t environmental impact assessments, 171 gasoline stream ecosystems, 329 phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 329 Pfiesteria piscida, 319 pH

acidification processes lake ecosystems, 72, 81 mining impacts, 91t, 94 stream ecosystems, 329 Phaeocystis spp., 163-164, 271-272 Phaeodactylum spp., 180 Phaeophyceae harmful algal blooms, 271 Rhodophyceae/Phaeophyceae ratio (R/P ratio) Phalaris arundinacea, 52t, 139-140, 140f, 301 pharmaceuticals lake ecosystems, 73 stream ecosystems, 325t, 329 constructed wetlands, 157 phytoremediation, 217t invasive species, 294 Philippines, 69, 1871 phosphorus (P)

aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f constructed wetlands, 155t, 159t dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), 47f dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), 47f estuarine ecosystems, 269 lake ecosystems eutrophication processes, 72 reduction strategies aeration/oxygenation processes, 76, 77f, 82t ecological engineering applications, 7f emissions decreases, 74, 82t export increases, 78 external elimination processes, 78, 82t hypolimnetic withdrawals, 7f, 78, 82t inactivation processes, 75, 76f, 82t inlet water purification, 74, 82t load reduction, 74, 75f, 82t nitrate additions, 77, 82t retention capacity increases, 74 retention increases, 74, 75f, 82t sediment capping, 77, 78f, 82t sediment dredging, 78, 82t restoration methods, 85

in-lake strategies, 74f, 75f, 82t principle strategies, 73, 82t reduction strategies, 74 riparian systems, 98, 99f, 101f, 102f, 109f sewage treatment systems, 141, 148f sludge composition, 234t, 235t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 116t, 328 tidal wetlands, 63 watershed management constructed wetlands, 348t,

348-349, 349f critical source areas, 343, 344f efficiency assessments, 344 nutrient transport, 342f, 343 Porijogi River catchment, Estonia, 105, 107f, 108f, 345, 346f, 346t, 347t wetland ecosystems particulate settlement and accretion, 48 plant assimilation, 48, 48t, 49t removal mechanisms, 46, 47f substrate adsorption, 47 photoautotrophs, 216, 329 phytoremediation, 217t photosynthesis photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)

submerged vegetation, 161 solar energy availability, 9 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)

submerged vegetation, 161 Phragmites australis dispersal mechanisms, 303 invasive species, 301 mining site restoration, 94 shoreline erosion control, 279 wastewater treatment background information, 134 characteristics, 139f design parameters, 144f floating emergent macrophytes, 157 heavy metal concentrations, 52t limiting factors, 54 single-house treatment system, 145f vegetated beds, 136-137, 154 vertical flow-horizontal flow (VF-HF)

systems, 139f, 147 wetland ecosystems, 51 wetland ecosystems, 45, 49t, 51, 52t Phragmites communis, 48t Phragmites mauritianus, 139-140, 157 phreatophytes, 216, 217t phycobiliproteins, 182 phycotoxins, 204 physiology phenotypic plasticity, 294 phytoaccumulation, 217t phytoassimilation, 217t phytoconcentration, 217t phytocontainment, 217t phytodegradation, 217t, 224 phytoevaporation, 217t phytoextraction, 217t, 230f phytofiltration, 217t phytolignification, 217t phytomining, 217t phytooxidation, 217t phytophotolysis, 217t phytoplankton aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f biomanipulation, 79, 82t, 85 estuarine ecosystems, 165f, 166, 167f impoundment threats, 174 lake ecosystems biomanipulation, 79, 82t destratification methods, 79, 82t food web manipulations, 79, 80f, 82t macrophyte biomass control, 80, 82t restoration methods, 74f, 75f sediment dredging, 78 shallow impoundments, 172 wetland ecosystems, 47f, 50f phytoreduction, 217t phytoremediation, 32, 216-231, 34, 37t applications, 227, 228f,

229f basic concepts, 216 biological volatilization, 217t classification, 217t future research areas, 226 general discussion, 5 genetically engineered plants, 225 genetic factors, 222, 222f green liver metabolism, 220 hazardous waste cleanup, 226 proteomics, 223 self-engineering processes, 220 target elements, 230f phytoseiid mites, 128 Phytoseiulus persimilis, 128, 128 phytosequestration, 217t phytoslurry, 217t phytosorption, 217t, 230f phytostabilization, 217t, 230f phytostimulation, 216, 217t phytotransfer, 217t phytotransformation, 217t phytovolatilization, 217t, 230f Picea sitchensis, 282 picric acid, 217t pike, 80 pike-perch, 80 Pinaceae, 294 pine trees dune ecosystems, 61 invasive species, 295 phytoremediation, 221 trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentrations, 221 pink hibiscus mealybug, 124, 124f Pinus contorta, 284 Pinus ponderosa, 284 Pinus spp.

invasive species habitat compatibility, 297 invasiveness theories, 295 taxonomic affiliation, 294 Mediterranean ecosystems phytoremediation, 217t, 221 Pinus strobus, 298 Pinus sylvestris, 282 Piper nigrum, 262f Pistia stratiotes, 49t, 158, 174-175 plankton estuarine ecosystems, 164f, 165f, 166, 167f hydropower dam construction and operation,

26t, 27t tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 plants biological control, 127 commensalism plant pathogens, 132 constructed wetlands, 347, 348f dune ecosystems characteristics, 59 dune profile characteristics, 61 f plants (continued )

ecological restoration, 61, 61/, 62f environmental constraints, 6Q, 6Qt forest zone, 6Q, 6Qf pioneer zone, 59, 6Qf shrub zone, 59-60, 60f environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 29 hydropower dam construction and operation, 26t, 27t environmental tolerance drainage paradigm, 337, 338t land cover changes, 338-339 organic matter losses, 337-338, 338f solar radiation, 336, 337f water cycle, 334/, 335, 336, 337f genetic factors, 222

herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), 131 intertidal environments, 62 invasive species, 290-299 alien species, 3QQ background information, 290 characteristics, 290 classical biological control, 124 community invasibility biotic resistance hypothesis, 297 causal relationships, 296f fluctuating resources theory, 297 habitat compatibility, 297 invasional meltdown, 297 levels of invasion, 296, 296f environmental impact, 297, 298f geographical patterns, 292 intercontinental migration dispersal vectors, 3Q3 hitchhiking vectors, 3Q3 introgressive hybrid species, 3Q1 invasion hypotheses diversity-resistance hypothesis, 3Q3 enemy release hypothesis, 3Q2 geographical range hypothesis, 3Q3 preemption hypothesis, 3Q2 resource-related hypotheses, 3Q2 lag phase, 293

long-distance dispersal (LDD), 293, 295 management strategies, 298 natural communities disturbances, 3Q4 functional change, 3Q3, 3Q4t naturalization-invasion continuum, 29Q, 291/

residence status, 291 species control biological control, 3Q5, 3Q5t general discussion, 3Q7 habitat protection, 3Q5 herbicides, 3Q7 physical control, 305t, 3Q6 restoration methods, 3Q5 volunteer efforts, 3Q6 species invasiveness evolutionary mechanisms, 294-295 evolution of increased competitive ability

(EICA), 295 general discussion, 294 invasiveness theories, 295 long-distance dispersal (LDD), 295 phenotypic plasticity, 294 residence time, 294 taxonomic affiliation, 294 Tens Rule, 294 spread rates, 293 terminology, 292t transgenic weeds, 3Q2 lake restoration methods, 85 light mangrove forests, 62 medicinal plants, 266

metabolic systems enzymatic reactions, 223 metallophytes, 91 mining impacts, 91t nitrogen cycle assimilation processes, 48t, 49, 49t uptake processes, 342, 342f pathogens, 131, 132 phosphorus (P) concentrations, 48, 48t,

491, 49t phytoremediation, 217t landscape functions, 308, 309t Presque Isle State Park, Pennsylvania

(USA), 279 proteomics, 223 root systems dune ecosystems, 61 phytoremediation, 216, 217t phytoremediation, 216, 217t sewage treatment systems, 7, 136-137 salt marsh ecosystems estuarine ecosystems, 67, 67f, 68f vegetation communities, 59-60 sewage treatment systems, 139,

139f, 140f stream ecosystems, 326 tidal wetlands, 62 watershed management, 347, 348f wetland ecosystems, 51 See also photosynthesis; vascular plants Plasmopara viticola, 131 plasticity

See also phenotypic plasticity playas, 44

plows, 248t, 249, 252t Poaceae invasive species, 294 Pohnpei, 167 Poland constructed wetlands, 153-154 polar bears landscape functions, 308, 309t pollution agricultural pollution, 348t agricultural runoff, 347, 348f aquaculture, 318 aquatic environments, 72 stream ecosystems, 329 constructed wetlands, 155t, 347,

348f, 348t coral reefs, 273 environmental engineering, 6 impoundment threats general discussion, 174 temperate environments, 174 tropical ecosystems, 174 lake restoration methods, 85 membrane systems mining activities, 90, 91t stream ecosystems, 328 phytoremediation, 216, 217t riparian systems, 96, 97f stream ecosystems metallic compounds, 329 pesticides, 329 species diversity, 330 stream restoration, 113-119 basic concepts, 113 component interactions, 116, 117f ecological challenges, 115, 115t ecological engineering, 113 general discussion, 119 Kissimmee River, Florida (USA),

117, 117f physical constraints chemical toxicants, 115-116, 116t general discussion, 115 successional assemblages, 116, 116f restoration goals, 114 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 wetland ecosystems, 46

heavy metal removal, 51, 52t nitrogen removal, 49 pathogen removal, 51 phosphorus removal, 46 sulfur removal, 51 See also endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) pollution problems, 3, 4/ polychaetes (Polychaeta) hypoxia/anoxia effects, 271 lake ecosystems, 73 phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 toxicity, 225 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 Polygonaceae, 294 Polynov, BB, 341, 342/ Polypogon /ugax, 52t polysaccharides, 184, 184t polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 183,

184, 184t pondweeds, 161 poplars, 225 population dynamics fragmented populations, 310 invasive species, 293 modeling studies coral-algal mutualism, 273 population growth rate ecological design principles, 11 stream restoration, 113-114 Populus deltoides, 221-222, 225 Populus /remontii, 304 Populus spp.

phytoremediation, 217t, 225, 229/ Porijogi River catchment, Estonia, 105, 107/,

108/, 345, 346/, 346t, 347t, 350/ Porphyra angusta, 187 Porphyra dentata, 187 Porphyra haitanensis, 187 Porphyra pseudolinearis, 187 Porphyra spp.

cultivation systems background information, 187 conchocelis culture, 188, 188 / conchospore formation and release, 188/, 189

harvesting processes, 190, 191/ life cycle, 187-188 seeding operations, 188/, 189 sporeling stage, 188/, 189, 190/, 191/ production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 Porphyra tenera, 187 Porphyra yezoensis, 187 Porphyridium spp., 184t Port Point Lisas, Trinidad, 68-69 Portugal ecohydrologic applications, 163 estuarine ecosystems, 164,

168/, 169/ sludge production, 242t wastewater treatment, 142/, 144/ Posidonia coriacea, 70 Potamogetonaceae, 294 Potamogeton crispus, 49t, 52t Potamogeton natans, 52t Potamogeton pectinatus, 48t,

49t, 161 Potamogeton spp., 52t potassium (K)

sludge composition, 235t wetland ecosystems, 48t potatoes, 225, 252t potholes, 44 powdery mildew, 132 Prasinophyceae, 183 precipitation erosion rates, 275, 276/ evapotranspiration, 338t stream ecosystems, 116t, 326 water cycle, 334f, 334-335 aquaculture, 321

biological control organisms, 127 coral reefs, 167, 170/", 273 mercury (Hg) contamination, 329 population dynamics biological control organisms, 128 Presque Isle State Park, Pennsylvania (USA) background information, 277 photographic views, 277/ problem areas, 278 project methodology, 278 driver indicators, 311, 312/

landscape ecology, 311, 312/ environmental state indicators, 311, 312/ impact indicators, 311, 312/ pressure indicators, 311, 312/ response indicators, 311, 312/ Prigogine, I

aquaculture waste production, 319, 320/ estuarine ecosystems, 165/ net primary production (NPP)

agroforestry, 263 stream ecosystems, 326, 329, 330 primary sludge, 235t, 235t primary tillage, 249, 252t prokaryotes

See also bacteria propagule pressure, 296 Prosopis juliflora, 306-307 proteins

Chlorella spp., 182 Spirulina spp., 182 proteomics, 223 protozoa invertebrate pest management, 133 sewage sludge, 235t wetland ecosystems, 51 Prunus africana, 266 Prunus virginiana, 279 Prymnesiophyceae, 183 Prymnesium parvum, 319 Pseudomonas spp. biopesticides, 132 nitrogen cycle, 50 sewage sludge, 235t Pseudo-nitzschia spp., 204, 271-272 Pseudotsuga menziesii, 282, 284 Puccinellia maritima, 62 Pueraria lobata, 298 Pueraria montana, 300, 306-307 Puerto Rico, 124 Pulau Laut, 283/ Pumping, 32 purple loosestrife biological control organisms, 305 characteristics, 301/ ecosystem function shifts, 304, 304t introgressive hybrid species, 301, 301/ mining site restoration, 94 physical control, 306 sewage treatment systems, 139-140 shoreline erosion control, 279 pyrite (FeS2)

lake ecosystems, 72, 81

0 0

Post a comment