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rabbits dune ecosystems, 60 rainbow trout invasive species, 301 rainfall erosion rates, 275, 276f stream ecosystems, 116t Rallus longirostris levipes, 302 Ramsar Convention, 44 raphidophytes, 271 Rattus rattus, 300 raw sludge, 235t

RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine),

157, 217t recreational activities riparian systems, 96, 97f coral reefs, 170f recycling, 3, 36 red algae

Gracilaria spp.

cultivation systems cultivation methods, 192,

192f, 194f life cycle, 191 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Chile, 206 Israel, 206, 206f South Africa, 205 harmful algal blooms, 271 red cedar, 61-62 red mangrove, 62

redox (reductive-oxidative) processes aquaculture waste production, 320f wetland ecosystems, 93 See also oxidation-reduction reactions red tides, 272 reed canarygrass, 139-140 reeds, See Phragmites australis refuges riparian systems, 96, 97f releaser pheromones harmful algal blooms, 271 reproductive systems endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) wildlife populations stream ecosystems, 330 invasive species, 290 stream ecosystems, 328, 330 reptiles (Reptilia)

reproductive toxicity, 330 stream ecosystems, 330 wetland ecosystems, 45 Republic of the Congo, 288, 288f, 288f reservoirs, 44

ecological design principles, 11 stream restoration, 113-114 biotic resistance hypothesis, 297 respiratory systems mining impacts, 91t restoration methods, 33, 33f Rhamnus spp., 298 Rhine River estuarine ecosystems, 67 rhizodegradation, 217t rhizofiltration, 217t Rhizophora mangle, 62, 297

Rhizophora spp., 62, 298

phytoremediation, 216, 217t Rhodophyta/Rhodophyceae Gracilaria spp.

cultivation systems cultivation methods, 192,

192f, 194f life cycle, 191 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Chile, 206 Israel, 206, 206f South Africa, 205 harmful algal blooms, 271 rice genetically engineered crops, 225 wastewater treatment, 146 Richmond, Virginia (USA), 92 richness measurements biodiversity invasive species, 304t species diversity invasive species, 304t Ringkobing Fjord, Denmark, 118 Riparian Ecosystem Management Model

(REMM), 98-101, 100f riparian systems, 95-112 buffer strips characteristics, 96

dimensioning processes, 103, 104f, 105f efficiency assessments, 105 schematic diagram, 98f buffer zones agroforestry, 259, 260t characteristics, 43, 96, 97f critical source areas, 343 dimensioning processes, 103, 105f ecological engineering measures, 344 efficiency assessments, 105, 344 functions canopy filtering, 103, 103f canopy shading, 102, 102f general discussion, 96 hydrological fluxes, 99f material fluxes, 99f nitrogen removal, 98, 99f, 100f, 101f,

102f, 109f nutrient loading, 99f phosphorus removal, 98,99f,101f, 102f,109f schematic diagram, 98f sediment reduction, 98-101, 100f subsurface water flow, 98, 99f hyporheic zone, 96, 96f nutrient budget analysis denitrification, 109f general discussion, 105 nitrogen budget, 110f nitrogen/phosphorus concentrations, 107f, 108f phosphorus budget, 111 f Porijogi River catchment, Estonia, 105, 107f,

108f, 345, 346f, 346t, 347t, 350f schematic diagram, 344f selection criteria, 41, 42f ecological services aquatic-terrestrial interactions, 96, 97f food sources, 96, 97f nutrient buffering, 96, 97f recreational activities, 96, 97f refuges, 96, 97f estuarine ecosystems, 163-164 invasive species, 297, 298f nitrogen cycle, 341-342, 342f stream ecosystems channelization modifications, 327-328 hydrologic effects, 326 nutrient cycling, 330

riparian systems (continued) restoration methods, 117 ecological design principles, 11 Riparian zone restoration, 37t river bulrush, 139-140, 148 See also wetland ecosystems channel structure channelization biological consequences, 327-328 physical impacts, 325t, 326, 327, 328f restoration methods, 117 estuarine ecosystems, 163-164 impoundments inflow effects, 173 outflow effects, 173 nitrogen cycle, 116t scale factors, 325t vegetation, 326 water cycle, 332

water management strategies, 332 water quality sediments, 325t, 329 See also stream ecosystems roach, 80

Robinia pseudoacacia, 298 root systems dune ecosystems, 61 phytoremediation, 216, 217t biotic-abiotic factors phytoremediation, 216, 217t sewage treatment systems, 7, 136-137 root-zone wastewater treatment method, 7, 134 Rosaceae, 294 round worms stream ecosystems, 116 Rubiaceae, 294 Rubus armeniacus, 298 Rubus chamaemorus, 48t Rumex obtusifolius, 140 runoff agroecosystems, 52t constructed wetlands, 156f, 156-157, 157f estuarine ecosystems, 163-164 heavy metal concentrations, 52t nutrient cycling, 344 riparian systems, 96, 97f stream ecosystems chemical toxicants, 116t hydrologic effects, 326 metallic compounds, 329 nutrient resources, 328 pesticides, 329 wastewater, 142f, 333 water cycle, 335

watershed management, 344, 348f, 348t Rusch, Hans-Peter, 211 rushes tidal wetlands, 62 Russia soil loss by harvesting, 254t Rutilus rutilus, 80

Saccharina latissima, 203, 203f Saggitaria latifolia, 139-140 sago pondweed, 161 Sahel region, Africa, 338-339 Salicaceae, 294 Salicornia spp., 62

estuarine ecosystems, 67f, 164f floodplain ecosystems

Africa, 332-333 freshwater ecosystems lakes, 73 invasive species, 297, 304t mangrove forests, 62 soils, 332-333

stream ecosystems, 115-116, 325t, 329

tidal wetlands, 62 water cycle, 332-333 Salix spp.

phytoremediation, 217t Salix viminalis, 146 salmon aquaculture, 199, 318, 318f integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Canada, 203, 203f Chile, 206, 207/, 323f stream ecosystems, 118 Salmo salar integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) Canada, 203, 203f Chile, 206, 207f Salmo trutta, 301 salt grass, 62 salt hay, 65

characteristics, 44, 45f estuarine ecosystems, 165f vegetation estuarine ecosystems, 67, 67f, 68f,

163, 165f vegetation communities, 59-60 See also estuarine ecosystems; tidal wetlands; wetland ecosystems saltmeadow cordgrass, 59, 62 sal trees, 280 saltwort, 62

Salvelinus fontinalis, 301 Salvinia auriculata, 174-175 Salvinia molesta, 491, 298, 303 Salvinia spp., 217t Sambucus nigra, 229f sand characteristics, 59 dune profile characteristics, 62f ecological restoration, 61, 61f, 62f environmental constraints, 60, 60t general discussion, 59 vegetation communities characteristics, 59 forest zone, 60, 60f pioneer zone, 59, 60f shrub zone, 59-60, 60f Sander lucioperca, 80 sand fences, 60, 61, 61f San Diego, California (USA), 159f San Francisco Bay, 165 Sapium sebiferum, 296 Sardina pilchardus, 164 sardines estuarine ecosystems, 164 Sargassum spp., 217t satellite systems invasive species, 293 scale insects, 305 scallops integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 208, 208/, 322 Scapharca broughtonii, 208 Scenedesmus spp., 184t Schizachyrium spp., 59 Schoenoplectus lacustris, 48t, 148, 157 Schoenoplectus spp., 62, 147 Scirpus americanus, 48t Scirpus fluviatilis, 139-140 Scirpus lacrustis, 46 Scirpus spp., 52t, 154 Scirpus tabernaemontani, 49t Scirpus validus, 279 Sclerotinia spp., 132 Scotland ecological forest management, 282 salmon aquaculture, 199 Trossachs National Park, Scotland, 282 , 282f seabirds

See also birds (Aves); waterfowl sea cucumbers integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 208

seafood consumption, 198 seagrasses estuarine ecosystems, 67f, 69, 164f, 274 wastewater treatment, 54 wetland ecosystems, 45f sea lions aquaculture, 321 seals aquaculture, 321 sea oats, 59, 61, 279 sea purslane, 59 sea rocket, 59 seashore elder, 59-60 seawater

See also oceans seaweed aquaculture, 186-197 cultivation systems, 186 ecological impact, 318 Eucheuma/Kappaphycus spp. cultivation systems, 192, 194f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 general discussion, 186, 197 Gracilaria spp. cultivation methods, 192, 192f, 194f cultivation systems, 191 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA),

196, 202f Laminaria spp.

cultivation systems, 193, 195f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 Porphyra spp.

conchocelis culture, 188, 188f conchospore formation and release, 188f, 189 cultivation systems, 187, 188f, 190f, 191f harvesting processes, 190, 191f life cycle, 187-188 production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 seeding operations, 188f, 189 sporeling stage, 188f, 189, 190f, 191f production changes, 200 production data, 187t Ulva spp., 186 Undaria spp.

cultivation systems, 194, 196f production data, 187t propagation methods, 186 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) basic concepts, 196, 202f Chile, 207, 207/, 322, 323f China, 208, 208f, 322 Israel, 206, 206f, 321 South Africa, 205, 205f, 206f, 321 sebkas, 44

secondary production, 304t secondary sludge, 235t secondary tillage, 249, 252t sedges aquatic wetlands, 44 tidal wetlands, 62 wastewater treatment, 54 wetland ecosystems, 51 sediment, 32

sediment of aquatic ecosystems, 32 sediment capping estuarine restoration methods, 71 lake restoration methods, 77, 78f, 82t sediment dredging, 78, 82t aquaculture waste production, 320f estuarine ecosystems, 164/, 166, 167/ hydropower dam construction and operation,

25t, 26t, 27t impoundment threats general discussion, 174 temperate environments, 174 tropical ecosystems, 174 lake restoration methods, 85 mercury (Hg) contamination, 329 phytoremediation, 217t removal mechanisms, 98-101, 100/ stream ecosystems, 325t, 329 tidal wetlands, 64, 64t wetland ecosystems, 50/ seed drills, 248t, 249 Seidel, K├Ąthe, 46, 134, 151-152 Seidel system, 147, 151-152 self-organization, 36 selenium (Se)

phytoremediation, 217t, 230/ stream ecosystems, 115-116, 329 ecological design principles, 9 natural selection theory, 9 succession, 10 sequence batch reactor (SBR) systems, 236 Sesbania sesban, 264 Sesuvium spp., 59 Seto Inland Sea, Japan, 272 sewage/sewage treatment activated sludge systems, 231-246 control methods, 240, 241t

Activated Sludge Models (ASMs)233 classifications, 241t modeling strategies, 240 nutrient removal mechanisms, 236, 239/ pretreatment processes, 236, 238t primary treatment processes, 236, 238t secondary treatment processes, 236, 238/, 238t settling and clarification processes, 237,

239/, 240/, 240t sludge processing methods basic concepts, 241, 242/ conditioning processes, 244 dewatering and drying processes, 244, 245t global production, 242t immersion drying, 245 reed drying beds, 244 stabilization processes, 243, 244/, 244t thickening and flotation processes, 243, 243/, 243t sludge/sewage sludge, 232 sludge technologies, 232 wastewater treatment plants, 234, 237/ constructed wetlands classification, 152, 152/ ecological engineering applications, 7 emergent macrophytes acid mine drainage, 154, 155/ basic concepts, 152/, 153, 153/ industrial waste, 157, 157/ landfill leachates, 157, 157/ livestock operations, 155, 156/, 156t municipal wastewater treatment, 154/ pollutant removal, 155t runoff, 156/, 156-157, 157/ free water surface flow (FSW), 150-162 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 152,

154, 155t, 159t classification, 152/, 153/ duckweed, 159

emergent macrophytes, 152/, 153, 153/ floating emergent macrophytes, 152/,

153/, 157, 158/ floating-leaved macrophytes, 152/, 153/, 160, 160/

free-floating macrophytes, 152/, 153/, 158

functionality, 152 historical background, 151 nitrification/denitrification, 152-153, 160 structure, 152

submerged macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 160, 161f total suspended solids (TSS), 152,

155t, 159t vegetated beds, 152 water hyacinths, 158, 159f, 159t general discussion, 54

horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), 134-150 background information, 134, 152, 152f basic design, 134f biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 135,

141, 141t, 1421, 143, 143t chemical oxygen demand (COD), 141,

141t, 142t, 143t comparison studies, 143, 143t cost analyses, 142 design parameters, 134 plastic liners, 137, 137f pretreatment processes, 135, 135f, 136f removal mechanisms, 140 schematic diagram, 134f substrate materials, 137, 137f treatment efficiency, 141, 141t, 142t,

143f, 143t vegetated beds, 135, 136f, 141t vegetation, 139, 139f, 140f, 140f wastewater distribution, 137, 138f wastewater types, 142f water-level control, 138-139, 139f

139f, 139f watershed management, 347, 348f hybrid constructed wetlands general discussion, 147, 152, 152f horizontal flow-vertical flow (HF-VF)

systems, 149, 150f vertical flow-horizontal flow (VF-HF)

systems, 147, 149f, 150 watershed management, 347, 348f subsurface water flow, 347, 348f surface flow/runoff, 347, 348f, 348f, 348t vertical subsurface flow (VF)

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5),

145t, 145t, 146f chemical oxygen demand (COD), 144,

145t, 145t design parameters, 143, 144f general discussion, 143, 152, 152f nitrogen submodel, 147f phosphorus submodel, 148f single-house treatment system, 145f treatment efficiency, 145, 145t vegetated beds, 146f watershed management, 347, 348f vertical upflow, 146, 148f willow-based zero discharge systems, 146, 148f estuarine ecosystems, 163-164 heavy metal concentrations, 52t integrated water resource management, 333 phytoremediation, 217t species diversity, 330 sewage sludge categories, 235t characteristics, 233, 235t composition, 234t definition, 232

microorganisms, 233, 235t, 236f primary sludge, 235t raw sludge, 235t secondary sludge, 235t settability tests, 241 t See also sewage/sewage treatment shade shaded perennial-crop systems, 259, 260t, 262f sheep dune ecosystems, 60 shellfish, See fish/fisheries agroforestry, 259, 260t Shorea robusta, 280

short (closed) water cycle, 334/, 335-336, 336/ shrimp estuarine ecosystems, 164 hypoxia/anoxia effects, 270-271 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 321 shrub ecosystems tidal wetlands, 62 Silene vulgaris, 91 silicon (Si)

sludge composition, 234t silver (Ag)

phytoremediation, 217t silver carp, 200 silverling, 61-62 silviculture dune ecosystems, 61 forest dynamics silvicultural guidelines, 283 silvicultural principles, 283, 285/ implementation processes, 286 tidal wetlands, 62 silvopastoral systems, 259, 260t, 262/ Silybum marianum, 290 simazine, 156-157

Sipe subcatchment area, Estonia, 345, 346/, 346t, 347t siphoning restoration techniques, 7/, 7-8, 85, 87/

Skaggerak, 270 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 slimsting nettle, 140 Slovenia constructed wetlands, 157 sludge categories, 235t characteristics, 233, 235t composition, 234t definition, 232

microorganisms, 233, 235t, 236/ phytoremediation, 217t primary sludge, 235t raw sludge, 235t secondary sludge, 235t settability tests, 241t See also sewage/sewage treatment sludge density index (SDI), 241t Sludge technology, 37t sludge volume index (SVI), 241t smooth cordgrass, 62, 64 snow snowfall/snowmelt stream ecosystems, 116t Societe Congolaise Industrielle des Bois, Republic of the Congo, 288, 288/ soda lakes, See lake ecosystems; salinity/

salinization sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), 81 sodium (Na)

lake ecosystems, 81 sludge composition, 234t See also salinity/salinization soft-stem bulrush, 279 landscape analysis, 310 acidification processes lake ecosystems, 72 agroforestry, 264, 267/ contamination studies, 7-8 development rates, 64, 64t dune ecosystems, 60 environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 28 hydropower dam construction and operation, 26t, 27t soft-stem bulrush (continued) cropping operations, 252t erosion rates, 275, 276f impoundment threats, 174 land management factors tillage, 249 seedbed preparation, 252t seeding operations, 252t tillage conservation tillage, 253 cropping operations, 252t seedbed preparation, 252t seeding operations, 252t soil-landscape restoration, 254 soil loss by harvesting, 254, 254t tillage systems, 253

tillage translocation/erosion, 249f, 250,

253f water erosion, 250 wind erosion, 250 erosion rates, 276f invasive species, 297, 304t mining impacts, 91t, 94 nitrogen cycle fixation processes, 264, 267f organic matter organic matter losses, 337-338, 338f phytoremediation, 217t, 228f, 229f salinity, 332-333 tidal wetlands, 63, 63f, 64, 64t tillage definition, 248 erosion conservation tillage, 253

cropping operations, 252t erosion rates, 275

seedbed preparation, 252t seeding operations, 252t tillage translocation/erosion, 249f, 250,

252t, 253f, 253f water erosion, 250 wind erosion, 250 land improvement practices general discussion, 249 land forming, 250 land leveling, 250 surface drainage, 250 terraces, 250

water and sediment control basins, 250 soil-landscape restoration, 254 soil loss by harvesting, 254, 254t soil movement, 247-255 characteristics, 247, 248t conservation tillage, 253 general discussion, 247 horizontal movement, 247, 249f,

251, 253f primary tillage, 249, 252t secondary tillage, 249, 252t tillage systems, 253 vertical movement, 247, 249f watershed management, 341, 342f Solanum tuberosum, 225 solar energy, See solar radiation/solar energy solar radiation/solar energy evapotranspiration, 336, 337f photosynthesis, 9 water cycle, 336, 337f See also light solvents, 217t songbirds tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 Sonneratia spp., 62 South Africa integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA),

205, 205f, 206f, 321 sewage sludge, 235t

South America invasive species, 293 organic farming, 214t South Carolina (USA)

constructed wetlands, 156/, 157f Southeast Asia southern water nymphs, 161 South Korea macroalgae cultivation, 187t, 191f Spain organic farming, 213f salmon aquaculture, 199 sludge production, 242t Sparganiuma androcladum, 279 Sparganium erectum, 148 Sparganium spp., 147, 157 Spartina alterniflora invasive species, 302 mangrove forests, 67-68 phytoremediation, 217t, 227 tidal wetlands, 62, 64, 65f Spartina foliosa, 62, 302 Spartina patens, 59, 61-62, 62,

65, 217t, 227 Spartina spp., 59, 298 Spartina townsendii, 62, 64 Sparus aurata, 206, 206f agroforestry, 263

geographic information systems (GIS) constructed wetlands, 349 spatterdock, 160 species/speciation landscape functions, 308, 309t richness measurements invasive species, 304t species diversity landscape analysis, 310 richness measurements invasive species, 304t stream ecosystems, 330 species invasiveness evolutionary mechanisms, 294-295 evolution of increased competitive ability

(EICA), 295 general discussion, 294 invasiveness theories, 295 long-distance dispersal (LDD), 295 phenotypic plasticity, 294 residence time, 294 taxonomic affiliation, 294 Tens Rule, 294 See also invasive species Sphagnum papillosum, 48t Sphagnum spp. bogs, 44

wastewater treatment, 51 spider mites, 128 spiked watermilfoil, 301 spikerush, 161 Spirodela oligorrhiza, 279 Spirodela polyrhiza, 158, 159 Spirulina spp.

microalgae cultivation biological importance, 182 biotechnological applications,

184, 184t general discussion, 176 open outdoor cultivation systems, 179 Spodoptera exigua, 131 spoonbills, 119 Sporobolus spp., 59, 62 spread rates invasive species, 293 springs, 44 Spriodela spp., 217t Steiner, Rudolf, 211

stirred specific volume index (SSVI), 241t strawberries, 128 algae carbon sources, 326 channelization modifications,

327-328 component interactions, 117f nutrient resources, 329 successional assemblages, 116f anthropogenic impacts dams, 330-331, 331f physical impacts, 325t channel structure channelization biological consequences, 327-328 physical impacts, 325t,

326, 327, 328f restoration methods, 117 components biological components invasive species, 330 species diversity, 330 chemical components acidification, 329 metals, 329

nutrient resources, 328 organic compounds, 330 pesticides, 329 salinity, 329 component interactions, 330, 331f dams, 330-331, 331f general discussion, 326 physical components geomorphology, 327 hydrology, 327 light availability, 328 water temperature, 328 temporal dynamics ecological engineering applications, 7f ecological restoration, 113-119 basic concepts, 113 component interactions, 116, 117f ecological challenges, 115, 115t ecological engineering, 113 general discussion, 119 Kissimmee River, Florida (USA), 117, 117f physical constraints chemical toxicants, 115-116, 116t general discussion, 115 successional assemblages, 116, 116f restoration goals, 114 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 invasive species, 330 management strategies, 324-331 anthropogenic threats, 325t basic concepts, 324 component interactions, 330, 331f ecological challenges, 326 ecological engineering, 324 general discussion, 325, 331 goals and objectives, 326 scale factors, 325t vegetation, 326 water quality sediments, 325t, 329 watersheds channelization, 326 See also floodplain ecosystems; riparian systems; river systems Stream management, 37t Stream restoration, 37t streptococci, 154 strontium (Sr)

phytoremediation, 217t Suaeda spp., 62

subaquatic landscapes, 342, 342f

See also riparian systems submerged vegetation, 85, 89f subsurface water flow, 347, 348f subtidal environments, See intertidal environments suburban environments, 116t ecological design principles, 10 self-organization, 10 stream ecosystems, 116, 116f sugar-beet weevil, 133 sugarcane, 128 sugars, See carbohydrates suitable habitats implications fragmented populations, 310 sulfur (S)

acidification processes, 72 dimethyl sulfide ((C^^)

acidification processes, 72 hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

aquaculture waste production, 319, 320f lake ecosystems, 72 lake ecosystems, 72, 81 sludge composition, 234t sulfates (SO4)

wetland ecosystems, 51 wetland ecosystems, 51 Sumava mountains, Czech Republic, 337, 338t sunflowers, 217t, 302 superaquatic landscapes, 341-342, 342f

See also riparian systems superoxide dismutase (SOD), 184 surface waters acidic deposition ecological consequences, 72 hydropower dam construction and operation,

26t, 27t nitrogen cycle, 116t phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems, 326 water cycle, 334f surfactants lake ecosystems, 73 See also mortality studies suspended solid concentration (SSC), 164f, 165f, 167f, 170f agroforestry systems, 266, 267f aquaculture, 198-210 business practices, 198 diversification, 199, 203f ecological impact, 318 geographic expansion, 199 integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) basic concepts, 201, 201f, 202f Canada, 203, 203f, 204f Chile, 206, 207f China, 208, 208f ecological interactions, 209 food safety issues, 204 Israel, 206, 206f public attitudes, 204-205 regulatory mechanisms, 208 South Africa, 205, 205f, 206f sustainable aquaculture, 201 waste reduction methods, 321 intensification possibilities, 199 production changes, 200 seafood consumption, 198 waste products biogeochemical cycles, 319, 320f characteristics, 319

ecological engineering approaches, 321 ecological impact, 318 general discussion, 323 integrated multitrophic aquaculture

(IMTA), 321 limiting factors, 322 waste reduction methods, 319 wastewater, 142f erosion, 275

water management strategies, 339, 339f

Sustainable marine aquaculture, 37t swallows characteristics, 44, 45/ importance, 54 tropical ecosystems, 44 Sweden constructed wetlands, 153-154, 154/ wastewater treatment, 146 wetland ecosystems, 52t sweet flag, 148 sweet mannagrass, 139-140 switch grass, 279 Switzerland biological agriculture, 211 organic farming, 213/ wastewater treatment plants, 237/ symbiosis coral-algal mutualism, 273

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