The most prominent forms of tillage are those used to prepare the seedbed, for example, plowing, disking, and cultivating. Soil movement occurs during a variety of other field operations, such as harrowing, packing, bed ding, seeding, injecting, weeding, hilling, and harvesting of some crops; as such, these operations are all forms of tillage (Box 1).
Tillage equipment can be powered by man, animal, or tractor. It can be as simple as a hoe or as complex as an implement with multiple tools, types oftools, and sections that can span 3-5 m in length and 20-30 m in width. The depth of tillage can be very shallow for some operations such as weeding or very deep for others such as plowing. The depth of moldboard plowing is normally 15-25 cm, but can exceed 40 cm. Tractor drawn equipment is normally operated at speeds of 5-8 km h 1, but can exceed 10 km h 1 (Table 1 ). All of these characteristics of the tillage equipment and its operation affect soil movement.
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