T

Taeniatherum caput-medusae, 298 Taiwan, 179, 186 Tamaricaceae, 294 tamarind tree, 266 Tamarindus indica, 266 Tamarix chinensis, 304 Tamarix spp., 297 tandem disk plows, 248t, 249, 252t Tanzania, 125, 187t taro, 139-140, 262/ taungya, 259, 260t Taxodium ascendens, 49t Taxodium distichum, 48t, 49t Taxodium spp., 44 Teleonemia scrupulosa, 127 tellurium (Te)

agroforestry, 259, 260t temperature invasive species, 292 microalgae cultivation, 177 stream ecosystems, 325t temperature-sensitive animals characteristics, 44 Tens Rule, 294 Tephrosia vogelii, 264 terrestrial ecosystems hydropower dam construction and operation, 251, 26t, 27t constructed wetlands, 154, 157, 157/ heavy metal concentrations, 52t phytoremediation, 217t tetrabromoethene, 217t tetrachloroethane, 217t tetrachloroethene, 217t tetrachloromethane, 217t Tetraselmis spp., 183, 184t Texas (USA)

phytoremediation, 221-222 University of North Texas, Texas (USA) Thailand macroalgae cultivation, 186 mangrove forests, 69 microalgae cultivation, 179 thallium (Tl) Thames River, 67 Theobroma cacao, 124, 262/, 265 thermodynamic laws ecological engineering design principles, 9 Thiosphaera pantotropha, 233, 235t thistles, 290

Thlaspi caerulescens, 217t Thompson Bay (USA), 278 Three Gorges, Hubei Province, China, 276/,

332-333 tidal wetlands biomass development, 65/ development rates, 64t ecological restoration, 63f, 64 environmental constraints, 60t, 62 general discussion, 59, 62 inundation effects, 62 restoration methods coral reefs, 67f, 70 general discussion, 71 habitat diversity, 66, 67f mangrove forests, 67f, 68 salt marsh vegetation, 67, 67f, 68f seagrasses, 67f, 69, 274 sediment capping, 71 salinity, 62

vegetation communities, 62 See also estuarine ecosystems; salt marsh ecosystems; wetland ecosystems tillage, 37t soils definition, 248 erosion, 275

conservation tillage, 253

cropping operations, 252t seedbed preparation, 252t seeding operations, 252t tillage translocation/erosion, 249f, 250,

252t, 253f water erosion, 250 wind erosion, 250 land improvement practices general discussion, 249 land forming, 250 land leveling, 250 surface drainage, 250 terraces, 250

water and sediment control basins, 250 soil-landscape restoration, 254 soil loss by harvesting, 254, 254t soil movement, 247-255 characteristics, 247, 248t conservation tillage, 253 general discussion, 247 horizontal movement, 247, 249f,

251, 253f primary tillage, 249, 252t secondary tillage, 249, 252t tillage systems, 253 vertical movement, 247, 249f timber production Borneo, 283f economic factors, 281 forest plantations, 281 Republic of the Congo, 288, 288f Trossachs National Park, Scotland, 282 Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon (USA), 284, 284f Tithonia diversifolia, 264 TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), 157 tobacco plant, 225 Tobago, 124 Tokyo Bay, Japan, 165 tolerance metallophytes, 91, 92 toluene, 157 tomatoes biological control, 131 greenhouse-grown plants, 128 tomato fruitworm, 131

Torchwood Hammock Preserve, Florida (USA), 305

total suspended solids (TSS), 152,

155t, 159t tourist attractions, 278 toxicants biological monitoring stream ecosystems, 329 freshwater ecosystems, 73 impoundment threats, 174

toxicants (continued)

integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 204

metallic compounds, 329 stream ecosystems, 328 phytoremediation, 2171 stream restoration, 115-116, 116t See also endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) TPBP (antifouling chemical) lake ecosystems, 73 stream ecosystems, 329 transformer plants, 292t, 297 transgenic crops, See genetically engineered crops transition zones, 34

Trebon Basin Biosphere Reserve, Czech Republic,

333f, 333-334, 334f tree frogs tree growth versus stand density, 285f Trialeurodes vaporariorum, 128 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), See DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) trichloroethene, 2171 trichloroethylene, 217t, 221-222 trichloromethane, 2171 Trichoderma spp., 132 Trichodesmium spp., 271-272 Trichogramma spp., 128, 129 Trinidad, 124 trinitrotoluene (TNT), 157,

217t, 221, 228f Triticum aestivum, 261f tritium (3H), 217t, 230f trophic levels stream ecosystems biomass concentrations, 329 agroforestry, 259, 260t deep impoundments, 172 forests invasive species, 293 impoundment threats, 174 swamps, 44 Trossachs Forest District, Scotland, 282 Trossachs National Park, Scotland, 282, 282f trout integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA), 206

invasive species, 301 Tsuga mertensiana, 284 Tubifex tubifex, 330 turbidity estuarine ecosystems, 67f impoundment threats, 174 stream ecosystems, 327-328 turbulence estuarine ecosystems, 164f Typha angustifolia, 301 Typhaceae, 294 Typha latifolia, 301 Typha orientalis, 54 Typha spp. constructed wetlands, 139-140,

147, 154, 157 dispersal mechanisms, 303 mining site restoration, 94 wastewater treatment, 54 wetland ecosystems, 49t Typha x glauca, 301 Typhus angustifolia, 48t, 52t Typhus latifolia, 48t, 52t

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