Figure 2 An example of physical, chemical, and biological component interactions. (a) Increased urbanization causes increased nutrient loading with no saturation affect. (b) Increased nutrients lead to increased algal growth; however, once nutrients become nonlimiting algal growth levels off. (c) Further urbanization leads to a higher frequency of flood events capable of scouring algae and flushing it out of the system. (d) Urbanization should reach a point where it no longer increases flood frequency and if scouring floods occur too often, significant algal growth may not be sustainable.

interactions, and depends on predicting how a change in one component will affect other components in the system.

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