Territorial Ecological Networks

The concept and implementation of territorial ecological networks (greenway networks) at the landscape level is considered to be the leading principle in ecological land scape planning. The widely used European level

Table 2 Scales of landscape planning in Germany

Planning area

Spatial comprehensive planning

Landscape planning

Scale

State

State spatial plan

Landscape program

1:500000-

-1:200000

Region (regional district or county)

Regional plan

Regional landscape plan

1:50000-

-1:25000

Community

Land-use plan

Landscape plan

1:5000-

-1:2500

Part of the community

Master plan

Open space master plan

1:2500-

1:1000

Adapted from Kiemstedt H (1994) Landscape Planning Contents and Procedures, 124pp. Bonn: Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Minister of Environment.

Adapted from Kiemstedt H (1994) Landscape Planning Contents and Procedures, 124pp. Bonn: Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Minister of Environment.

approach defines territorial ecological networks as coher ent assemblages of areas representing natural and seminatural landscape elements that need to be con served, managed, or, where appropriate, enriched or restored in order to ensure the favorable conservation status of ecosystems, habitats, species, and landscapes of regional importance across their traditional range.

In addition to this approach, there are a wide range of names worldwide given to such 'patch and corridor' spa tial concepts: greenways in the USA, Australia, and New Zealand, ecological infrastructure, ecological framework, extensive open space systems, multiple use nodules, wildlife corridors, landscape restoration network, habitat networks, territorial systems of ecological stability, frame work of landscape stability. In Estonia, a concept of ''the network of ecologically compensating areas'' (Mander et al., 1988) has been developed since the early 1980s. This network can be seen as a landscape's subsystem -an ecological infrastructure - that counterbalances the impact of the anthropogenic infrastructure in the land scape. In comparison with the traditional biodiversity targeted approach, this concept also considers the material and energy cycling, socioeconomic and socio cultural aspects.

According to the broader concept, ecological networks preserve the main ecological functions in landscapes, such as (1) accumulating material and dispersing human induced energy, (2) receiving and rendering unsuitable wastes from populated areas, (3) recycling and regenerat ing resources, (4) providing wildlife refuges and conserving genetic resources, (5) serving as migration tracts for biota, (6) serving as barriers, filters, and/or buffers for fluxes of material, energy, and organisms in landscapes, (7) serving as support frameworks for regional settlements, (8) providing recreation areas for people, and, consequently, and (9) compensating and balancing all inevitable outputs of human society.

A network of ecologically compensating areas is a func tionally hierarchical system with the following components: (A) core areas, (B) corridors; functional linkages between the ecosystems or resource habitat ofa species, enabling the dispersal and migration of species and resulting in a favor able effect on genetic exchange (individuals, seeds, genes) as well as on other interactions between ecosystems; corri dors may be continuous (linear), interrupted (stepping stones), and/or landscape (scenic and valuable cultural landscapes between core areas), (C) buffer zones of core areas and corridors, which support and protect the network from adverse external influences, and (D) nature develop ment and/or restoration areas that support resources, habitats, and species (Figure 3).

Core area

Landscape corridor

Core area

Linear corridor

Core area

Landscape corridor

Core area

Linear corridor

Territorial Ecosystem

Buffer zone

Restoration area

Figure 3 Schematic example of an ecological network. Adapted from Bouwma IM, Jongman RHG, and Butovsky RO (eds.) (2002) Indicative map of the pan-European ecological network for Central and Eastern Europe. Technical background document. ECNC Technical Report Series, 101pp + annexes. Tilburg, The Netherlands/Budapest: ECNC and Mander Ü, Kulvik M, and Jongman R (2003) Scaling in territorial ecological networks. Landschap 20(2): 113-127.

Buffer zone

Restoration area

Figure 3 Schematic example of an ecological network. Adapted from Bouwma IM, Jongman RHG, and Butovsky RO (eds.) (2002) Indicative map of the pan-European ecological network for Central and Eastern Europe. Technical background document. ECNC Technical Report Series, 101pp + annexes. Tilburg, The Netherlands/Budapest: ECNC and Mander Ü, Kulvik M, and Jongman R (2003) Scaling in territorial ecological networks. Landschap 20(2): 113-127.

The size of network components serve as another criter ion of the network's hierarchy on three levels: (1) the macroscale: large natural core areas (>1000 km2) separated by buffer zones and wide corridors or stepping stone elements (width >10 km); (2) mesoscale: small core areas (10-1000 km2) and connecting corridors between these areas (e.g., natural river valleys, seminatural recreation areas for local settlements; width 0.1-10 km); (3) microscale: small protected habitats, woodlots, wetlands, grassland patches, ponds (<10 km2) and connecting corridors (stream banks, road verges, hedgerows, field verges, ditches; width <0.1 km).

Megascale ecological networks can be considered at the global level. The human footprint map can serve as a basis for determining global ecological networks (Figure 4). The macroscale of ecological networks is represented by regional level activities such as the Pan European Ecological Network (PEEN) or national level projects. In the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, and the Netherlands, territorial ecological networks are implemented and legislatively supported. In Estonia, Lithuania, and Poland, networks are designed and some aspects accepted by law. In Hungary, Latvia, Switzerland, and Ireland, network design is under development, and local or landscape level ecological networks have been established in some parts of the territory of several European countries such as Germany, Belgium, the UK, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Ukraine. Landscape level ecological networks are designed or implemented on a wide range of spatial scales, from macro and meso to microscale projects. The most significant research on both species' migration and dispersal, as well as on energy and material fluxes, has been carried out at this level.

As an example of the designing of the national level ecological network, we have presented a part of the PEEN that is based on Estonian data from a one square kilometer grid. The proposed ecological network design consists of three principal layers: (1) general topographi cal features like coastlines, the water network, major roads and place names for locating the depicted network; (2) a habitat based field of suitability for the ecological net work, calculated on the basis of network values of landscape features using a predefined algorithm; and (3) the ecological network as an administrative decision. The second layer serves as a tool supporting decision making, while the third layer consists of the traditional components of an ecological network, such as core areas, corridors, buffer zones, and nature development/restora tion areas. Figure 5 represents a combination of the last two layers as a map of protected areas (layer 3) and areas not protected but suitable for inclusion in ecological net works according to their present natural state (layer 2). Protected areas can be considered to be obligatory core areas of ecological networks, whereas areas suitable for ecological networks areas can be considered to be buffer zones and/or corridors.

Figure 4 A map of the human footprint as a basis for the ecological network system at the global scale. Summarized factors of anthropogenic pressure have been used, such as the Human Influence Index, which is the quantitative basis for the map. Adapted from Sanderson EW, Jaiteh M, Levy MA, et al. (2002) The human footprint and the last of the wild. Bioscience 52(10): 891-904 and Mander 0, Kulvik M, and Jongman R (2003) Scaling in territorial ecological networks. Landschap 20(2): 113-127.

Figure 4 A map of the human footprint as a basis for the ecological network system at the global scale. Summarized factors of anthropogenic pressure have been used, such as the Human Influence Index, which is the quantitative basis for the map. Adapted from Sanderson EW, Jaiteh M, Levy MA, et al. (2002) The human footprint and the last of the wild. Bioscience 52(10): 891-904 and Mander 0, Kulvik M, and Jongman R (2003) Scaling in territorial ecological networks. Landschap 20(2): 113-127.

Estonia Ecological Network

Figure 5 Example of the ecological network of Estonia at the national level. Protected areas and areas not protected but suitable for an ecological network according to their present natural state. Adapted from Remm K, Kulvik M, ManderU, and Sepp K(2004) Design of the Pan-European Ecological Network: A national level attempt. In: Jongman RHG and Pungetti G (eds.) New Paradigms in Landscape Planning: Ecological Networks and Greenways, pp. 151-170. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Figure 5 Example of the ecological network of Estonia at the national level. Protected areas and areas not protected but suitable for an ecological network according to their present natural state. Adapted from Remm K, Kulvik M, ManderU, and Sepp K(2004) Design of the Pan-European Ecological Network: A national level attempt. In: Jongman RHG and Pungetti G (eds.) New Paradigms in Landscape Planning: Ecological Networks and Greenways, pp. 151-170. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

See also: Riparian Zone Management and Restoration; Watershed Management.

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • POPPY
    What is territorial ecosystem?
    6 years ago

Post a comment