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Vaccinium spp., 284

Vallisneria americana, 161

Vanda subcatchment area, Estonia, 345, 346f,

346t, 347t, 350f variable-leaf water-milfoil, 161 vascular plants constructed wetlands, 347, 348f phytoremediation, 216 sewage treatment systems, 139 watershed management, 347, 348f vegetation dune ecosystems characteristics, 59 dune profile characteristics, 61f ecological restoration, 61, 61f, 62f environmental constraints, 60, 60t forest zone, 60, 60f pioneer zone, 59, 60f shrub zone, 59-60, 60f environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 29 hydropower dam construction and operation, 26t, 27t drainage paradigm, 337, 338t land cover changes, 338-339 organic matter losses, 337-338, 338f solar radiation, 336, 337f water cycle, 334f, 335, 336, 337f intertidal environments, 62 landscape functions, 308, 309t mangrove forests, 62 mining impacts, 91t Presque Isle State Park, Pennsylvania

(USA), 279 salt marsh ecosystems estuarine ecosystems, 67, 67f, 68f vegetation communities, 59-60 sewage treatment systems, 139, 139f, 140f stream ecosystems, 326 submerged vegetation, 85, 89f tidal wetlands, 62 watershed management, 341, 342f wind effects See also photosynthesis vertebrates hydropower dam construction and operation,

26t, 27t tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 See also animals Vietnam macroalgae cultivation, 187t mangrove forests, 69 vinyl chloride, 217t Viola calaminaria, 91, 92 Virginia (USA), 92 viruses invertebrate pest management, 133 wetland ecosystems, 51 vitamins

Chlorella spp., 182 microalgae cultivation, 184 Spirulina spp., 182 vitamin C, 184 vitamin E, 184 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) phytoremediation, 217t wetland ecosystems, 50f

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