W

Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon (USA),

284, 284f Washington (USA), 276f wasps predatory behaviors, 128 waste management, 37t environmental impact assessments, 171 waste products environmental impact assessments, 171 mining wastes, 91t stream ecosystems, 116t wastewater/wastewater treatment activated sludge systems, 231-246 control methods, 240, 241t modeling studies, 233, 240, 241t nutrient removal mechanisms, 236, 239f pretreatment processes, 236, 238t primary treatment processes, 236, 238t secondary treatment processes, 236, 238f, 238t settling and clarification processes, 237,

239f, 240f, 240t sludge processing methods, 241, 242f, 242t sludge/sewage sludge, 232 sludge technologies, 232 wastewater treatment plants, 234, 237f constructed wetlands classification, 152, 152f, 347, 348f ecological engineering applications, 7, 7f emergent macrophytes acid mine drainage, 154, 155f basic concepts, 152f, 153, 153f industrial waste, 157, 157f landfill leachates, 157, 157f livestock operations, 155, 156f, 156t municipal wastewater treatment, 154f pollutant removal, 155t runoff, 156f, 156-157, 157f free water surface flow (FSW), 150-162 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 152,

154, 155t, 159t classification, 152f, 153f duckweed, 159

emergent macrophytes, 152f, 153, 153f floating emergent macrophytes, 152f,

153f, 157, 158f floating-leaved macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 160, 160f free-floating macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 158 functionality, 152 historical background, 151 nitrification/denitrification, 152-153, 160 structure, 152

submerged macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 160, 161f total suspended solids (TSS), 152,155t, 159t vegetated beds, 152 water hyacinths, 158, 159f, 159t general discussion, 54

horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), 134-150 background information, 134, 152, 152f basic design, 134f biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 135,

141, 141t, 142t, 143, 143t chemical oxygen demand (COD), 141,

141t, 142t, 143t comparison studies, 143, 143t cost analyses, 142 design parameters, 134 plastic liners, 137, 137f pretreatment processes, 135, 135f, 136f removal mechanisms, 140 schematic diagram, 134f substrate materials, 137, 137f treatment efficiency, 141, 141t, 142t,

143f, 143t vegetated beds, 135, 136f, 141t vegetation, 139, 139f, 140f wastewater distribution, 137, 138f wastewater types, 142f water-level control, 138-139, 139f watershed management, 347, 348f hybrid constructed wetlands general discussion, 147, 152, 152f horizontal flow-vertical flow (HF-VF)

systems, 149, 150f vertical flow-horizontal flow (VF-HF)

systems, 147, 149f, 150 watershed management, 347, 348f phytoremediation, 227, 228f subsurface water flow, 347, 348f surface flow/runoff, 347, 348f, 348t vertical subsurface flow (VF)

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5),

145t, 145t, 146f chemical oxygen demand (COD), 144, 145t design parameters, 143, 144f general discussion, 143, 152, 152f nitrogen submodel, 147f phosphorus submodel, 148 f single-house treatment system, 145f treatment efficiency, 145, 145t vegetated beds, 146f watershed management, 347, 348f vertical upflow, 146, 148f willow-based zero discharge systems, 146, 148f environmental impact assessments, 171 eutrophication processes, 72 lake restoration methods, 85 microalgae cultivation, 185

natural wetlands basic processes, 45, 46t heavy metal removal, 51, 52t importance, 54 limiting factors, 54 nitrogen removal, 49, 50f nutrient transformation processes, 46 pathogen removal, 51 phosphorus removal, 46 plant communities, 51 sulfur removal, 51 nitrification processes, 140 phytoremediation, 217t stream ecosystems chemical toxicants, 116t metallic compounds, 329 organic compounds, 329 water temperature, 328 See also sewage/sewage treatment water buffaloes, 45 Water cycle management, 371 waterfleas

See also Daphnia spp. waterfowl aquatic wetlands, 45 stream ecosystems

Kissimmee River, Florida (USA), 117 Skjern River, Denmark, 118 tidal wetlands, 64t, 65 Water Framework Directive (WFD), 269-270, 332 water (H2O)

environmental impact assessments bridge construction and operation, 28 hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t, 26t, 27t project examples, 17t erosion, 275, 276f drainage paradigm, 337, 338t land cover changes, 338-339 organic matter losses, 337-338, 338f solar radiation, 336, 337f water cycle, 334f, 335, 336, 337f global resources estuarine ecosystems, 164 marshes mining impacts, 91t impoundment threats, 174 tillage, 250 stream ecosystems, 328 turnover time anthropogenic impacts, 332 characteristics, 334 climate change effects, 336 definitions, 334 evapotranspiration drainage paradigm, 337, 338t land cover changes, 338-339 organic matter losses, 337-338, 338f solar radiation, 336, 337f global distribution, 335t invasive species, 304t long (open) water cycle, 334f, 335, 336f management strategies, 332-340 anthropogenic impacts, 332 evapotranspiration-dissipation relationships, 336 fishpond systems, 333f, 333-334, 334f historical systems, 333-334 landscape ecology, 332 sustainable development, 339, 339f schematic diagram, 334f short (closed) water cycle, 334f, 335-336, 336f water quality agroforestry, 265, 267f dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations anoxic environments, 270 eutrophication processes, 270

impoundments aging processes, 172 general discussion, 174 monitoring methods, 175 temperate environments, 174 tropical ecosystems, 174 water hyacinths biological control, 125 constructed wetlands, 158, 159/, 159t dispersal mechanisms, 3Q3f impoundment threats, 174-175 invasive species, 297, 3Q1f submerged vegetation, 85 wetland ecosystems, 45, 48t, 49t, 51, 52t water lettuce, 158 water lilies, 16Q water nymphs, 161 watersheds management strategies, 341-351 constructed wetlands classification348f Estonia, 349, 35Qf nutrient transport, 344 schematic diagram, 344f surface flow/runoff, 348/, 3481 wastewater treatment, 347 critical source areas, 343, 343f, 344f erosion control, 344, 344f landscape factors, 341, 342f nutrient transport, 341, 342f, 344, 344f riparian systems buffer zones, 343, 344, 344f efficiency assessments, 344 nitrogen cycle, 341-342, 342f Porijogi River catchment, Estonia, 1Q5,107/, 1Q8/, 345, 346/, 346t, 347t, 35Qf stream ecosystems channelization, 326 Watershed management, 35, 37t wax myrtle, 61-62 Wedelia trilobata, 293 weeds constructed wetlands, 14Q riparian systems, 96, 97f transgenic weeds, 3Q2 weevils, 125, 128 wetland ecosystems, 44-55 acidification processes, 72 classification, 44, 45f constructed wetlands classification, 152, 152/, 347, 348/ ecological engineering, 7,7/, 7t, 344,344/, 348f emergent macrophytes acid mine drainage, 154, 155f basic concepts, 152/, 153, 153f industrial waste, 157, 157f landfill leachates, 157, 157f livestock operations, 155, 156f, 156t municipal wastewater treatment, 154f pollutant removal, 155t runoff, 156/, 156-157, 157f free water surface flow (FSW), 150-162 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 152,

154, 155t, 159t classification, 152/, 153f duckweed, 159

emergent macrophytes, 152/, 153, 153f floating emergent macrophytes, 152f,

153/, 157, 158/ floating-leaved macrophytes, 152/, 153/, 16Q, 16Qf free-floating macrophytes, 152/, 153/, 158 functionality, 152 historical background, 151 nitrification/denitrification, 152-153, 16Q structure, 152

wetland ecosystems (continued)

submerged macrophytes, 152f, 153f, 160,161f total suspended solids (TSS), 152, 155t, 1591 vegetated beds, 152 water hyacinths, 158, 159f, 159t horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF), 134-150 background information, 134, 152, 152f basic design, 134f biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 135,

141, 141t, 142t, 143, 143t chemical oxygen demand (COD), 141,

141t, 142t, 143t comparison studies, 143, 143 t cost analyses, 142 design parameters, 134 plastic liners, 137, 137f pretreatment processes, 135, 135f, 136f removal mechanisms, 140 schematic diagram, 134f substrate materials, 137, 137f treatment efficiency, 141,141t,142t,143f,143t vegetated beds, 135, 136f, 1411 vegetation, 139, 139f, 140f, 140f wastewater distribution, 137, 138f wastewater types, 142f, 142f, 142f water-level control, 138-139,139f watershed management, 347, 348f hybrid constructed wetlands general discussion, 147, 152, 152f horizontal flow-vertical flow (HF-VF)

systems, 149, 150f vertical flow-horizontal flow (VF-HF)

systems, 147, 149f, 150 watershed management, 347, 348f phytoremediation, 227, 228f subsurface water flow, 347, 348f surface flow/runoff, 347, 348f, 348t vertical subsurface flow (VF)

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5),

145t, 146f chemical oxygen demand (COD), 144, 145t design parameters, 143, 144f, 144f, 144f general discussion, 143, 152, 152f nitrogen submodel, 147f phosphorus submodel, 148f single-house treatment system, 145f treatment efficiency, 145, 145t vegetated beds, 146f watershed management, 347, 348f vertical upflow, 146, 148f wastewater treatment, 54, 347 watershed management agricultural runoff, 347, 348f, 348f Estonia, 349, 350f nutrient transport, 344, 349f schematic diagram, 344f willow-based zero discharge systems, 146, 148f definition, 44 degradation rates, 164f forested wetlands characteristics, 44, 45f environmental constraints, 60t estuarine ecosystems, 67f, 68, 163-164,

166, 167f general discussion, 62

hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t importance, 54 invasive species, 297 salinity, 62

vegetation communities, 62 characteristics, 44, 45f importance, 54 tropical ecosystems, 44 functions, 45

geographic distribution, 44 heavy metal removal, 51, 52t historical background, 44-45 hydropower dam construction and operation, 25t importance, 45 invasive species, 293 characteristics, 44, 45f importance, 54 nitrogen (N)

decomposition processes, 50 plant assimilation, 48t, 49, 49t removal mechanisms, 49, 50f nutrient cycling, 54 occurrences, 44 pathogen removal, 51 phosphorus (P)

particulate settlement and accretion, 48 plant assimilation, 48, 48t, 49t removal mechanisms, 46, 47f substrate adsorption, 47 phytoremediation, 217t plant communities, 51 restoration methods flood control methods, 85 mining sites, 93 non-point pollution, 87f, 88f stream ecosystems, 117, 118 sulfur removal, 51 tidal wetlands biomass development, 65f development rates, 64t ecological restoration, 63f, 64 environmental constraints, 60t, 62 general discussion, 59, 62 inundation effects, 62 restoration methods coral reefs, 67f, 70 general discussion, 71 habitat diversity, 66, 67f mangrove forests, 67f, 68 salt marsh vegetation, 67, 67f, 68f seagrasses, 67f, 69, 274 sediment capping, 71 salinity, 62

vegetation communities, 62 wastewater treatment heavy metal removal, 51, 52t importance, 54

limiting factors, 54

natural wetlands, 45, 46t nitrogen removal, 49, 50f nutrient transformation processes, 46

pathogen removal, 51

phosphorus removal, 46

plant communities, 51

sulfur removal, 51

See also estuarine ecosystems; floodplain ecosystems; freshwater ecosystems; riparian systems; salt marsh ecosystems; swamps Wexford, Ireland, 160f wheat intercropping, 261f whiteflies, 128, 132 white mangrove, 62 White Mountains, Arizona (USA), 301 wild celery, 161 wild dogs invasive species, 304t buffer zones, 43

endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)

pesticides, 329 environmental impact assessments, 29 landscape functions, 308, 309t See also animals wind agroforestry, 259, 260t erosion, 250, 275, 276f windbreaks, See wind winter wheat, 261f Wolffia spp., 158, 159 Wolffiella spp., 159 worms

See also polychaetes (Polychaeta)

0 0

Post a comment