Microcosm Replication

Replication is an issue of experimental design rather than technical design of a microcosm. It is included in this discussion because of its critical nature to the microcosm method (Beyers, 1964) and because its consideration leads to fundamental questions of variability (possibly chaos) of ecosystems. In fact, replication is one of the minimal requirements of experimental design in ecology (Hairston, 1989) as in any application of the scientific method. As noted by Sheehan (1989) the main...

Comments from the Literature about Muskrats in Treatment Wetlands

Plate Waste Template

The proponents of reeds argue for a monoculture of reeds, while others argue that bulrushes are superior. Survivability of each species will depend on other factors, such as plant pests. Muskrats love cattails and bulrushes, while reeds apparently are inedible Muskrats can damage dikes by burrowing into them. Although muskrats generally prefer to start their burrows in water that is more than 3 ft deep, they can be a problem in shallower waters. Muskrats can be excluded by installing an...

The Emergence Of New Ecosystems

A central theme of this book has been the development of the concept that new ecosystems can be designed, constructed, and operated for the benefit of humanity through ecological engineering. The concept of new ecosystems was introduced in Chapter 1 and was elaborated in subsequent chapters that focused on particular case studies. New ecosystems originate through human management, along with the self-organizational properties of living systems. The mix of engineered design with nature's...

Industrial Ecology

Industrial ecology is an emerging new paradigm that concerns methods for increasing industrial efficiency and improving the relationships between industry and the environment (Graedel and Allenby, 2003 Lifset, 2000 McDonough and Braungart, 2002 Richards, 1997 Richards and Pearson, 1998 Socolow et al., 1994). It is relevant in this chapter on solid waste management because it emphasizes energy and material flows often with a focus on two management methods described earlier source reduction and...

Deep Ecology And Soft Engineering Exploring The Possible Relationship Of Soil Bioengineering To Eastern Religions

Design in soil bioengineering is mostly qualitative, intuitive, and perhaps even organic, especially in contrast to conventional approaches to erosion control. It clearly requires a sophisticated understanding of water flows and energetics that cause erosion but, as noted by Shields et al. (1995), Despite higher levels of interest FIGURE 3.12 View of tree trunks extending from root wads in a stream restoration project in central Maryland. FIGURE 3.12 View of tree trunks extending from root wads...

Ecology As The Source Of Inspiration In Design

Ecological Engineering

The hypothesis that has emerged from the examination of the history of the use of wetlands for wastewater treatment is that the technology primarily evolved from ecologists working on applied problems, rather than from engineers discovering ecosystems as useful systems. If this hypothesis is true, it suggests that the field of ecological engineering has a unique approach compared with other forms of engineering. It is not just a variation of environmental engineering but a whole new branch of...

Groundcover Or Woodmulch

SOIL FILTER MIX 50 SAND 20 COMPOSTED FIGURE 3.17 View of the rain garden concept. (From Coffman, L. S. and D. A. Winogradoff. 2001. Design Manual for Use of Bioretention in Stormwater Management. Watershed Protection Branch, Prince George's County, MD. With permission.) devices (such as a collection system or a cascade of other BMPS). Vegetation plays several roles in rain garden function. The root systems of plants improve infiltration, and plant growth absorbs some pollutants and increases...