B

10 20 30 40 50 60 Time, Years

4. --Total Litter

10 20 30 40 50 60 Time, Years

FIGURE 5.9 Comparison of simulation runs of the phosphate mine simulation model from Figure 5.8. (A) Standard run. (B) Result of increasing the seeding rate 1000 times and adding litter. (Adapted from Kangas, P. 1983b. Analysis of Ecological Systems: State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modelling. W. K. Lauenroth, G. V. Skogerboe, and M. Flug. (eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.)

tional development, and succession is likewise a possible candidate (Table 5.5). The algorithmic or recursive nature of succession suggests this use. Succession is often portrayed with flowchart diagrams (Figure 5.10) that perhaps could be the basis for computational development through some form of translation. The key to this use is to understand what kinds of problems that the succession algorithms might solve. Evolution has proven to be a very robust model which has been used as a basis for several kinds of evolutionary computation, especially based on optimization (Fogel, 1995, 1999). However, evolution solves different problems than succession. Perhaps the traveling salesman problem is a model for the type of problem that succession solves. This is a kind of minimum-distance problem where the salesman in the metaphor has to find the shortest possible path between a number of towns, each of

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