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1.32 x 1014

a Average solar insolation for Southwest Florida is approximately 7.00 X 109 J/m2/year (E.

P. Odum, 1971). Total solar energy is (7.00 X 109 J/m2/year) (372.1 m2). b Wind energy = (0.5)(density of air) (wind velocity2)(eddy diffusion coefficient) (height of boundary layer). Density = 1.2 X 103 g/cm3. Wind velocity = 378.3 cm/sec (Ruttenber, 1979). Eddy diffusion coefficient = 1 X 104 cm2/sec (Kemp, 1977). Height of boundary layer = 1 X 104 cm. Area affected = 130.5 m2. c Tidal energy = (0.5)(area elevated) (tides/year) (tidal height2)(density of water) (gravitational acceleration). Area = 60 m2. Tides/year = 706 (H. T. Odum, 1996). Tidal height = 100 cm (Carter et al., 1973). Density = 1.025 g/cm3. Gravitational acceleration = 980 cm2/sec.

d Chemical potential of rain = (area)(rainfall) (Gibbs free energy of water). Area = 90 m2. Rainfall at Ft. Myers, FL = 1.37 m/year (Drew and Schomer, 1984). Gibbs free energy = 4.94 J/g (H. T. Odum, 1996). e Wave energy = (shore length) (1/8)(density of water) (gravitational acceleration) (wave height2) (velocity) (from H. T. Odum, 1996). Shore length = 3.1 m. Density = 1000 kg/m3. Gravitational acceleration = 9.8 m/sec2. Wave height = 0.1 m (assumed). Velocity = (gravity X depth)1/2, where depth = 1 m (assumed).

units of joules per unit time. These standard unit flows are then scaled with transformation ratios to account for the degree to which different energies are concentrated (i.e., embodied energy or emergy), measured in equivalent units of solar joules per unit time. This scaling accounts for differing concentrations (in terms of ability to do work) of energies. Table 4.3A shows energies for Southwest Florida, which is the natural analog for the Everglades mesocosm, whose energy signature is given in Table 4.3B. Wave energy dominates the emergy budget in the real Everglades of Southwest Florida, while natural gas and electricity, which are needed for heating, cooling, and running machinery (such as the wave generator) have the highest emergies in the mesocosm. Such analysis illustrates how much more total energy is required to operate a mesocosm compared with the actual system it models. In this case the mesocosm required two orders of magnitude more emergy to operate than the analog ecosystem. Beyers and H. T. Odum (1993) include a similar analysis of

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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