become common in ecological engineering designs of the future. These species will accelerate the development of useful systems and lead to improved performance. Biodiversity prospecting and a knowledge of the niche concept will be needed to take advantage of these species. Rapport et al. (1985) give a table of preadaptations to stress in natural ecosystems. New systems developing with pollution are sources of preadapted species for treatment ecosystems. Likewise, invasive, exotic species often are successful due to preadaptation to human disturbance and can be seed sources for ecological engineering if permissible. Greater attention to the phenomenon of preadaptation can lead to new ways of thinking about biodiversity that may enrich both ecology and engineering.

In conclusion, the three principles described above provide a foundation for the new discipline of ecological engineering. The overall design procedure is (1) to provide an appropriate energy signature, (2) to identify species that may be pre-adapted to the design conditions and use them as a seed source, and (3) if pread-aptated species cannot be identified, to introduce a diversity of species through multiple seeding into the system to facilitate self-organization.

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