24,000 5,000 11,000 5,000 45,000
Source: Adapted from Kadlec, R. H. and R. L. Knight. 1996. Treatment Wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
a chocolate factory (Shaw, 1999). In this system some of the clean water produced by the treatment process is used as irrigation water for the company's landscape plants. This generates value because the company is located near Las Vegas in the arid southwest U.S. where the value of irrigation water is considerable. A savings is realized by the company because they produce their own irrigation water and do not have to buy an equivalent amount of water for the landscaping. This system also produces vegetables (Figure 8.2), though these are not sold but rather distributed to the operators of the living machine. Federal laws prohibit sale of food products grown in treated sewage waters, but because the Henderson living machine is not treating sewage, it is possible to raise food products.
There are many opportunities to develop valuable by-products from ecologically engineered systems because of the production capacity of ecosystems. Although several system-specific examples have been discussed (Devik, 1976; National Research Council, 1981), the topic of by-product generation is underdeveloped. To some extent knowledge of business and marketing is essential along with ecological engineering to develop these opportunities. The future will likely include more
multipurpose uses of ecological engineered systems, and policies that regulate byproducts should be critically examined.
The by-products produced from a system can be added up to assess total indirect benefits. This approach has also been applied in a related context for assessing the value of natural ecosystems. It has been termed the component value method and
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