FIGURE 5.2 Extremes of reserve design based on the theory of island biogeography. (Adapted from Diamond, J.M., 1975. Biological Conservation. 7:129-146.)
for immigration or by the use of a corridor configuration to connect reserves and facilitate migration by species. Diamond (1975) summarized reserve design principles as shown in Figure 5.2. This use of theoretical equations for the purpose of design is reminiscent of engineering applications, such as the sizing equation given in Chapter 2 in regard to treatment wetlands. As a first approximation, the equations from island biogeography provide a quantitative basis for design decisions to be made about reserves. The equations provide predictions that can be used to make choices between alternatives and to explore the implications of possible solutions, as in engineering. However, this application was quickly and repeatedly criticized, especially by Daniel Simberloff and his associates (Simberloff and Abele, 1976; see the review in Shafer, 1990), bringing up many exceptions and controversies about the complexity of reserve design. For example, there may be situations where more diversity is maintained in a landscape with a number of small reserves that protect local patches of high species diversity rather than in one large reserve that is not able to protect all of the diversity from the scattered patches. Thus, in the present state of the art, the theory of island biogeography does not provide much valuable insight in conservation biology (Hanski and Simberloff, 1997; Simberloff, 1997; Williamson, 1989), but it does represent a historical example of design practice relevant for perspective on ecological engineering.
At another extreme, environmentalism takes on passionate, emotional displays and actions for the protection of natural ecosystems (Zakin, 1993). Perhaps the most extreme form of such passion is ecoterrorism. "Monkey-wrenching," for example, involves the destruction of equipment and impairment of work of developers and polluters who cause environmental impacts. The novelist Edward Abbey coined the term in 1975 when he described the fictional actions (some of which are listed in Table 5.1) of the "Monkey Wrench Gang" (George Washington Hayduke, Seldom
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