Table

Listing of the Dominant Processes of Water Quality Dynamics in Treatment Wetlands

Process

Sedimentation Adsorption, Precipitation Biodegradation Chemical transformation

Metabolic uptake Overall input

Overall output

Pathway within treatment wetland

TSS in water to sediments

Nutrients in water to sediments

BOD in water to microbes

Nutrients in water to microbes and microbes to nutrients in water

Nutrients in water to plants

TSS, BOD, nutrients in sewage source to water storage

TSS, BOD, nutrients in water storage to discharge

Note: Pathways are from Figure 2.14.

are small to moderate. In urban settings, where waste volumes are high, conventional treatment plants are more appropriate than treatment wetlands because they handle large flows with small area requirements.

Graphs Biodiversity And Urbanization

Log Length (cm)

FIGURE 2.15 A scale graph of biodiversity. (From Pedros-Alio, C. and R. Guerrero. 1994. Limnology: A Paradigm of Planetary Problems. R. Margalef (ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. With permission.)

Log Length (cm)

FIGURE 2.15 A scale graph of biodiversity. (From Pedros-Alio, C. and R. Guerrero. 1994. Limnology: A Paradigm of Planetary Problems. R. Margalef (ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. With permission.)

Wetlands that are specially constructed for wastewater treatment are the most common form of the technology today. A few types of natural wetlands are used (Breaux and Day, 1994; Knight, 1992), but these are special case situations. The two main classes of constructed treatment wetlands differ in having either surface or subsurface water flows. The state of the art is given in book-length surveys by Campbell and Ogden (1999), Kadlec and Knight (1996), Reed et al. (1995), and Wolverton and Wolverton (2001), and in a number of edited volumes (Etnier and Guterstam, 1991; Godfrey et al., 1985; Hammer, 1989; Moshiri, 1993; Reddy and Smith, 1987). Other useful reviews are given by Bastian (1993), Brown and Reed in a series of papers (Brown and Reed, 1994; Reed and Brown, 1992; Reed, 1991), Cole (1998), Ewel (1997), and Tchobanolous (1991).

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