Table of Contents

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Chapter 1 Introduction 1

A Controversial Name 1

Relationship to Ecology 4

Relationship to Engineering 9

Design of New Ecosystems 13

Principles of Ecological Engineering 16

Energy Signature 18

Self-Organization 19

Preadaptation 22

Strategy of the Book 24

Chapter 2 Treatment Wetlands 25

Introduction 25

Strategy of the Chapter 25

Sanitary Engineering 26

An Audacious Idea 33

The Treatment Wetland Concept 39

Biodiversity and Treatment Wetlands 44

Microbes 45

Higher Plants 46

Protozoans 49

Mosquitoes 50

Muskrats 52

Aquaculture Species 55

Coprophagy and Guanotrophy 56

Parallel Evolution of Decay Equations 57

Ecology as the Source of Inspiration in Design 60

Algal Turf Scrubbers 61

Living Machines 63

Chapter 3 Soil Bioengineering 69

Introduction 69

Strategy of the Chapter 72

The Geomorphic Machine 72

Concepts of Soil Bioengineering 78

Deep Ecology and Soft Engineering: Exploring the Possible Relationship of Soil Bioengineering to Eastern Religions 81

Case Studies 87

Urbanization and Stormwater Management 87

Agricultural Erosion Control 91

Debris Dams, Beavers, and Alternative Stream Restoration 96

The Role of Beaches and Mangroves in Coastal Erosion Control 109

Chapter 4 Microcosmology 117

Introduction 117

Strategy of the Chapter 120

Microcosms for Developing Ecological Theory 121

Microcosms in Ecotoxicology 125

Design of Microcosms and Mesocosms 132

Physical Scale 133

The Energy Signature Approach to Design 138

Seeding of Biota 143

Closed Microcosms 148

Microcosm Replication 158

Comparisons with Natural Ecosystems 162

Chapter 5 Restoration Ecology 167

Introduction 167

Strategy of the Chapter 169

Restoration and Environmentalism 170

How to Restore an Ecosystem 173

The Energy Signature Approach 174

Biotic Inputs 177

Succession as a Tool 185

Bioremediation 191

Procedures and Policies 195

Measuring Success in Restoration 196

Public Policies 199

Case Studies 200

Saltmarshes 200

Artificial Reefs 205

Exhibit Ecosystems 209

Chapter 6 Ecological Engineering for Solid Waste Management 215

Introduction 215

Strategy of the Chapter 216

The Sanitary Landfill as an Ecosystem 218

Composting Ecosystems for Organic Solid Wastes 221

Industrial Ecology 230

Economic Concepts and the Paradox of Waste 232

Chapter 7 Exotic Species and Their Control 235

Introduction 235

Strategy of the Chapter 237

Exotics as a Form of Biodiversity 239

Exotics and the New Order 244

Learning from Exotics 249

Control of Exotic Species and Its Implications 252

Other Concepts of Control in Ecology and Engineering 256

Appendix 1: List of books published on exotic species used to produce

Chapter 8 Economics and Ecological Engineering 273

Introduction 273

Strategy of the Chapter 274

Classical Economics Perspectives on Ecological Engineering 275

Problems with Conventional Economics 279

Ecological Economics 281

Life-Support Valuation of Ecosystem Services 283

Natural Capital, Sustainability, and Carrying Capacity 286

Emergy Analysis 288

Related Issues 291

Financing 292

Regulation 292

Patents 293

Ethics 296

Chapter 9 Conclusions 297

The Emergence of New Ecosystems 297

The Ecological Theater and the Self-Organizational Play 302

Epistemology and Ecological Engineering 307

Future Directions for Design 311

Ecological Nanotechnology 312

Terraforming and Global Engineering 314

From Biosensors to Ecosensors 314

Technoecosystems 317

A Universal Pollution Treatment Ecosystem 318

Ecological Architecture 321

Biofiltration and Indoor Environmental Quality 322

Ecology and Aquacultural Design 323

Biotechnology and Ecological Engineering 325

Biocultural Survey for Alternative Designs 326

Ecological Engineering Education 328

Curricula 328

The Ecological Engineering Laboratory of the Future 331

Thomas Edison's "Invention Factory" 331

The New Alchemy Institute 333

The Waterways Experiment Station 335

The Olentangy River Wetland Research Park 335

References 341

Index 437

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