where S = number of species where n = importance value for each species N = total of importance values where D430 = optical absorption at 430 millimicrons D665 = optical absorption at 665 millimicrons where L = actual number of links in a food web S = number of species in a food web where S = number of tree species
BA = basal area of trees (m2/ha) D = density of trees (number of stems/ha) H = maximum tree height (m)
where T = total system flow
Tj = flow of energy or materials from trophic category i to j Tkj = flow from k to j Tim = flow from i to m
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