Other bracovirus proteins have also been reported to compromise host cell viability. Expression of the TnBVl protein in Sf21 cells via recombinant baculovirus or in High Five cells using expression vectors led to apoptosis-like programmed cell death (Lapointe et al, 2005). However, in this case the absence of blebbing and apoptotic bodies in the cell lines prevented the characterization of TnBV1 effects as classical apoptosis. The EP1-like protein, ELP1, from CvBV has also been shown to induce a reduction in total haemocyte numbers after transient expression in P. xylostella (Kwon and Kim, 2008). EP1 proteins have long been suspected to act as immunosuppressors and it will be exciting to determine the mechanism involved in reducing haemocyte numbers.
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