An understanding of the impact of physiological state on immune function requires detailed information on the immune system and interconnected physiological systems. Fortunately, our understanding of insect molecular biology and physiology continues to grow. For example, the hormonal links between reproduction and immune function in insects are becoming clearer (Flatt et al., 2005; Flatt and Kawecki, 2007). These advances will help to refine our understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes behind immune-system responses to changes in physiological state.

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