Unlike other species that act as predators, eating the host from the inside, wasps associated with PDVs are all koinobiont parasitoids: they develop together with the host and preserve host tissues. Thus they have to exert subtle effects without damaging the caterpillar's essential functions. Some factors target host immunity while others redirect resources to the haemolymph to feed the parasite or control the developmental programme of the host. We shall now focus on the PDV effects on host immunity.
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