Where there are discrete clades of bacteria and pro-tists that live symbiotically with insects, screens of a wide range of species have been conducted to investigate how many species carry these bacteria. Wolbachia has been estimated as infecting between 16 and 70% of arthropods, depending on assay method, intensity of sampling, and method of numerical analysis (Werren and Windsor, 2000; Duron et al, 2008a; Hilgenboecker et al, 2008).
Cardinium, Arsenophonus, and Spiroplasma ixodetis relatives are each found in between 5 and 10% of all arthropod species (Duron et al., 2008a). All except Arsenophonus appear to be more common in spiders and mites than in insects, with over half of spider species carrying inherited symbionts (Goodacre et al, 2006; Duron et al., 2008a).
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