Adema, C.M., Hertel, L.A., Miller, R.D., and Loker, E.S. (1997) A family of fibrinogen-related proteins that precipitates parasite-derived molecules is produced by an invertebrate after infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 8691-8696. Agarwala, K.L., Ganesh, S., Tsutsumi, Y. et al. (2001) Cloning and functional characterization of DSCAML1, a novel DSCAM-like cell adhesion molecule that mediates homophilic intercellular adhesion. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 285, 760-772. Bischoff, V., Vignal, C., Duvic, B. et al. (2006) Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2. PLoS Pathogens 2, e14.

Blandin, S., Shiao, S.H., Moita, L.F. et al. (2004) Complement-like protein TEP1 is a determinant of vectorial capacity in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Cell 116, 661-670.

Brites, D., McTaggart, S., Morris, K. et al. (2008) The Dscam homologue of the crustacean Daphnia is diversified by alternative splicing like in insects. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25, 1429-1439.

Chen, B.E., Kondo, M., Garnier, A. et al. (2006) The molecular diversity of Dscam is functionally required for neuronal wiring specificity in Drosophila. Cell 125, 607-620.

Choe, K.M., Werner, T., Stoven, S. et al. (2002) Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science 296, 359-362.

Christophides, G.K., Zdobnov, E., Barillas-Mury, C. et al. (2002) Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae. Science 298, 159-165.

Christophides, G.K., Vlachou, D., and Kafatos, F.C. (2004) Comparative and functional genomics of the innate immune system in the malaria vector Anopheles gam-biae. Immunological Reviews 198, 127-148.

Cohuet, A., Osta, M.A., Morlais, I. et al. (2006) Anopheles and Plasmodium: from laboratory models to natural systems in the field. EMBO Reports 7, 1285-1289.

Crayton, III, M.E., Powell, B.C., Vision, T.J., and Giddings, M.C. (2006) Tracking the evolution of alternatively spliced exons within the Dscam family. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6, 16.

Daffre, S. and Faye, I. (1997) Lipopolysaccharide interaction with hemolin, an insect member of the Ig-superfamily. FEBS Letters 408, 127-130.

Dimopoulos, G. (2003) Insect immunity and its implication in mosquito-malaria interactions. Cell Microbiology 5, 3-14.

Dimopoulos, G., Richman, A., Muller, H.M., and Kafatos, F.C. (1997) Molecular immune responses of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae to bacteria and malaria parasites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, 11508-11513.

Dimopoulos, G., Seeley, D., Wolf, A., and Kafatos, F.C. (1998) Malaria infection of the mosquito Anopheles gam-biae activates immune-responsive genes during critical transition stages of the parasite life cycle. EMBO Journal 17, 6115-6123.

Dimopoulos, G., Casavant, T.L., Chang, S. et al. (2000) Anopheles gambiae pilot gene discovery project: identification of mosquito innate immunity genes from expressed sequence tags generated from immune-competent cell lines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 6619-6624.

Dimopoulos, G., Muller, H.M., Levashina, E.A., and Kafatos, F.C. (2001) Innate immune defense against malaria infection in the mosquito. Current Opinion in Immunology 13, 79-88.

Dimopoulos, G., Christophides, G.K., Meister, S. et al. (2002) Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gam-biae: responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, 8814-8819.

Dong, Y., Aguilar, R., Xi, Z. et al. (2006a) Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species. PLoS Pathogens 2, e52.

Dong, Y., Taylor, H.E., and Dimopoulos, G. (2006b) AgDscam, a hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor of the Anopheles gambiae innate immune system. PLoS Biology 4, e229.

Du Pasquier L. (2005) Immunology. Insects diversify one molecule to serve two systems. Science 309, 1826-1827.

Eleftherianos, I., Marokhazi, J., Millichap, P.J. et al. (2006a) Prior infection of Manduca sexta with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli elicits immunity to pathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens: roles of immune-related proteins shown by RNA interference. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 36, 517-525.

Eleftherianos, I., Millichap, P.J., ffrench-Constant, R.H., and Reynolds, S.E. (2006b) RNAi suppression of recognition protein mediated immune responses in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta causes increased susceptibility to the insect pathogen Photorhabdus. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30, 1099-1107.

Eleftherianos, I., Gokcen, F., Felfoldi, G. et al. (2007) The immunoglobulin family protein Hemolin mediates cellular immune responses to bacteria in the insect Manduca sexta. Cell Microbiology 9, 1137-1147.

Endo, Y., Matsushita, M., and Fujita, T. (2007) Role of ficolin in innate immunity and its molecular basis. Immunobiology 212, 371-379.

Erickson, H.P. (1993) Tenascin-C, tenascin-R and tenascin-X: a family of talented proteins in search of functions. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 5, 869-876.

Fujita, T. (2002) Evolution of the lectin-complement pathway and its role in innate immunity. Nature Reviews Immunology 2, 346-353.

Garver, L.S., Xi, Z., and Dimopoulos, G. (2008) Immunoglobulin superfamily members play an important role in the mosquito immune system. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32, 519-531.

Gobert, V., Gottar, M., Matskevich, A.A. et al. (2003) Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors. Science 302, 2126-2130.

Gokudan, S., Muta, T., Tsuda, R. et al. (1999) Horseshoe crab acetyl group-recognizing lectins involved in innate immunity are structurally related to fibrinogen.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96, 10086-10091.

Gorkun, O.V., Veklich, Y.I., Weisel, J.W., and Lord, S.T. (1997) The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin: recombinant fibrinogen typifies plasma fibrinogen. Blood 89, 4407-4414.

Gottar, M., Gobert, V., Michel, T. et al. (2002) The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature 416, 640-644.

Graveley, B.R. (2005) Mutually exclusive splicing of the insect Dscam pre-mRNA directed by competing intronic RNA secondary structures. Cell 123, 65-73.

Guan, R., Roychowdhury, A., Ember, B. et al. (2004) Structural basis for peptidoglycan binding by peptido-glycan recognition proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101, 17168-17173.

Hattori, D., Demir, E., Kim, H.W. et al. (2007) Dscam diversity is essential for neuronal wiring and self-recognition. Nature 449, 223-227.

Hoek, R.M., Smit, A.B., Frings, H. et al. (1996) A new Ig-superfamily member, molluscan defence molecule (MDM) from Lymnaea stagnalis, is down-regulated during parasitosis. European Journal of Immunology 26, 939-944.

Hughes, A.L. (1998) Protein phylogenies provide evidence of a radical discontinuity between arthropod and vertebrate immune systems. Immunogenetics 47, 283-296.

Jiang, Y., Loker, E.S., and Zhang, S.M. (2006) In vivo and in vitro knockdown of FREP2 gene expression in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata using RNA interference. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30, 855-866.

Johansson, M.W., Lind, M.I., Holmblad, T. et al. (1995) Peroxinectin, a novel cell adhesion protein from crayfish blood. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 216, 1079-1087.

Kairies, N., Beisel, H.G., Fuentes-Prior, P. et al. (2001) The 2.0-A crystal structure of tachylectin 5A provides evidence for the common origin of the innate immunity and the blood coagulation systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 13519-13524.

Kang, D., Liu, G., Lundstrom, A. et al. (1998) A peptidogly-can recognition protein in innate immunity conserved from insects to humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95, 10078-10082.

Kenjo, A., Takahashi, M., Matsushita, M. et al. (2001) Cloning and characterization of novel ficolins from the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 19959-19965.

Kim, M.S., Byun, M., and Oh, B.H. (2003) Crystal structure of peptidoglycan recognition protein LB from Drosophila melanogaster. Nature Immunology 4, 787-793.

Kim, Y.S., Ryu, J.H., Han, S.J. et al. (2000) Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan that mediates the signaling for the induction of innate immune genes in Drosophila melanogaster cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 32721-32727.

Kobayashi, R., Mizutani, A., and Hidaka, H. (1994) Isolation and characterization of a 36-kDa microfibril-associated glycoprotein by the newly synthesized isoquinolinesulfonamide affinity chromatography. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 198, 1262-1266.

Kurtz, J. and Armitage, S.A. (2006) Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates. Trends in Immunology 27, 493-496.

Ladendorff, N.E. and Kanost, M.R. (1991) Bacteria-induced protein P4 (hemolin) from Manduca sexta: a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which can inhibit hemocyte aggregation. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 18, 285-300.

Lanz-Mendoza, H., Bettencourt, R., Fabbri, M., and Faye, I. (1996) Regulation of the insect immune response: the effect of hemolin on cellular immune mechanisms. Cell Immunology 169, 47-54.

Lee, W.J., Lee, J.D., Kravchenko, V.V. et al. (1996) Purification and molecular cloning of an inducible gram-negative bacteria-binding protein from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 7888-7893.

Levashina, E.A., Moita, L.F., Blandin, S. et al. (2001) Conserved role of a complement-like protein in phagocytosis revealed by dsRNA knockout in cultured cells of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Cell 104, 709-718.

Liu, C., Xu, Z., Gupta, D., and Dziarski, R. (2001) Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: a novel family of four human innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 34686-34694.

Lu, J. and Le, Y. (1998) Ficolins and the fibrinogen-like domain. Immunobiology 199, 190-199.

Lu, J., Teh, C., Kishore, U., and Reid, K.B. (2002) Collectins and ficolins: sugar pattern recognition molecules of the mammalian innate immune system. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1572, 387-400.

Matsushita, M. and Fujita, T. (2002) The role of ficolins in innate immunity. Immunobiology 205, 490-497.

Medzhitov, R. and Janeway, Jr, C.A. (2002) Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system. Science 296, 298-300.

Meijers, R., Puettmann-Holgado, R., Skiniotis, G. et al. (2007) Structural basis of Dscam isoform specificity. Nature 449, 487-491.

Mellroth, P., Karlsson, J., and Steiner, H. (2003) A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278, 7059-7064.

Michel, T., Reichhart, J.M., Hoffmann, J.A., and Royet, J. (2001) Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature 414, 756-759.

Middha, S. and Wang, X. (2008) Evolution and potential function of fibrinogen-like domains across twelve Drosophila species. BMC Genomics 9, 260.

Miller, L.H., Roberts, T., Shahabuddin, M., and McCutchan, T.F. (1993) Analysis of sequence diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface pro-tein-1 (MSP-1). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 59, 1-14.

Neves, G., Zucker, J., Daly, M., and Chess, A. (2004) Stochastic yet biased expression of multiple Dscam splice variants by individual cells. Nature Genetics 36, 240-246.

Ochiai, M. and Ashida, M. (1999) A pattern recognition protein for peptidoglycan. Cloning the cDNA and the gene of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 11854-11858.

Olson, S., Blanchette, M., Park, J. et al. (2007) A regulator of Dscam mutually exclusive splicing fidelity. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 14, 1134-1140.

Osta, M.A., Christophides, G.K., and Kafatos, F.C. (2004) Effects of mosquito genes on Plasmodium development. Science 303, 2030-2032.

Parnes, J.R. and Hunkapiller, T. (1987) L3T4 and the immunoglobulin gene superfamily: new relationships between the immune system and the nervous system. Immunological Reviews 100, 109-127.

Rämet, M., Manfruelli, P., Pearson, A. et al. (2002) Functional genomic analysis of phagocytosis and identification of a Drosophila receptor for E. coli. Nature 416, 644-648.

Reiser, J.B., Teyton, L., and Wilson, I.A. (2004) Crystal structure of the Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-SA at 1.56 A resolution. Journal of Molecular Biology 340, 909-917.

Richman, A.M., Dimopoulos, G., Seeley, D., and Kafatos, F.C. (1997) Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. EMBO Journal 16, 6114-6119.

Riehle, M.M., Markianos, K., Niare, O. et al. (2006) Natural malaria infection in Anopheles gambiae is regulated by a single genomic control region. Science 312, 577-579.

Rosinski-Chupin, I., Chertemps, T., Boisson, B. et al. (2007) Serial analysis of gene expression in Plasmodium berghei salivary gland sporozoites. BMC Genomics 8, 466.

Schmucker, D. and Flanagan, J.G. (2004) Generation of recognition diversity in the nervous system. Neuron 44, 219-222.

Schmucker, D., Clemens, J.C., Shu, H. et al. (2000) Drosophila Dscam is an axon guidance receptor exhibiting extraordinary molecular diversity. Cell 101, 671-684.

Schroder, H.C., Ushijima, H., Krasko, A. et al. (2003) Emergence and disappearance of an immune molecule, an antimicrobial lectin, in basal metazoa. A tachylec-tin-related protein in the sponge Suberites domuncula. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278, 32810-32817.

Schulenburg, H., Boehnisch, C., and Michiels, N.K. (2007) How do invertebrates generate a highly specific innate immune response? Molecular Immunology 44, 3338-3344.

Sritunyalucksana, K., Wongsuebsantati, K., Johansson, M.W., and Soderhall, K. (2001) Peroxinectin, a cell adhesive protein associated with the proPO system from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 25, 353-363.

Sun, S.C., Lindstrom, I., Boman, H.G. et al. (1990) Hemolin: an insect-immune protein belonging to the immuno-globulin superfamily. Science 250, 1729-1732.

Tahar, R., Boudin, C., Thiery, I., and Bourgouin, C. (2002) Immune response of Anopheles gambiae to the early sporogonic stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. EMBO Journal 21, 6673-6680.

Takehana, A., Katsuyama, T., Yano, T. et al. (2002) Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, 13705-13710.

Teh, C., Le, Y., Lee, S.H., and Lu, J. (2000) M-ficolin is expressed on monocytes and is a lectin binding to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and mediates monocyte adhesion and phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. Immunology 101, 225-232.

Terenius, O., Bettencourt, R., Lee, S.Y. et al. (2007) RNA interference of Hemolin causes depletion of phenoloxi-dase activity in Hyalophora cecropia. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 31, 571-575.

Wang, X., Rocheleau, T.A., Fuchs, J.F. et al. (2004) A novel lectin with a fibrinogen-like domain and its potential involvement in the innate immune response of Armigeres subalbatus against bacteria. Insect Molecular Biology 13, 273-282.

Wang, X., Zhao, Q., and Christensen, B.M. (2005) Identification and characterization of the fibrino-gen-like domain of fibrinogen-related proteins in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, genomes. BMC Genomics 6, 114.

Warr, E., Das, S., Dong, Y., and Dimopoulos, G. (2008) The Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein gene family: its role in the innate immune system of anopheles gambiae and in anti-Plasmodium defence. Insect Molecular Biology 17, 39-51.

Waterhouse, R.M., Kriventseva, E.V., Meister, S. et al. (2007) Evolutionary dynamics of immune-related genes and pathways in disease-vector mosquitoes. Science 316, 1738-1743.

Watson, F.L., Puttmann-Holgado, R., Thomas, F. et al. (2005) Extensive diversity of Ig-superfamily proteins in the immune system of insects. Science 309, 1874-1878.

Werner, T., Liu, G., Kang, D. et al. (2000) A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97, 13772-13777.

Werner, T., Borge-Renberg, K., Mellroth, P. et al. (2003) Functional diversity of the Drosophila PGRP-LC gene cluster in the response to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278, 26319-26322.

Williams, A.F. and Barclay, A.N. (1988) The immuno-globulin superfamily-domains for cell surface recognition. Annual Review of Immunology 6, 381-405.

Wojtowicz, W.M., Flanagan, J.J., Millard, S.S. et al. (2004) Alternative splicing of Drosophila Dscam generates axon guidance receptors that exhibit isoform-specific homophilic binding. Cell 118, 619-633.

Wojtowicz, W.M., Wu, W., Andre, I. et al. (2007) A vast repertoire of Dscam binding specificities arises from modular interactions of variable Ig domains. Cell 130, 1134-1145.

Yamakawa, K., Huot, Y.K., Haendelt, M.A. et al. (1998) DSCAM: a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily maps in a Down syndrome region and is involved in the development of the nervous system. Human Molecular Genetics 7, 227-237.

Yimlamai, D., Konnikova, L., Moss, L.G., and Jay, D.G. (2005) The zebrafish down syndrome cell adhesion molecule is involved in cell movement during embryogenesis. Developmental Biology 279, 44-57.

Yoshida, H., Kinoshita, K., and Ashida, M. (1996) Purification of a peptidoglycan recognition protein from hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271, 13854-13860.

Yu, X.Q. and Kanost, M.R. (2002) Binding of hemolin to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. An immunoglobulin superfamily member from insects as a pattern-recognition receptor. European Journal of Biochemistry 269, 1827-1834.

Zhang, S.M. and Loker, E.S. (2003) The FREP gene family in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: additional members, and evidence consistent with alternative splicing and FREP retrosequences. Fibrinogen-related proteins. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 27, 175-187.

Zhang, S.M., Leonard, P.M., Adema, C.M., and Loker, E.S. (2001) Parasite-responsive IgSF members in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: characterization of novel genes with tandemly arranged IgSF domains and a fibrino-gen domain. Immunogenetics 53, 684-694.

Zhang, S.M., Adema, C.M., Kepler, T.B., and Loker, E.S. (2004) Diversification of Ig superfamily genes in an invertebrate. Science 305, 251-254.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Audio Book

Post a comment