where R is the gas constant (8.317 J/K moles = 0.08207 l atm/K moles), Tthe temperature of the environment (and the system; see Figure 2.1), while Ct is the concentration of the ith component expressed in a suitable unit, e.g. for phytoplankton in a lake Ci could be expressed as mg/l or as mg/l of a focal nutrient. Ci o is the concentration of the ith component at thermodynamic equilibrium and n is the number of components. Ci o is of course a very small concentration (except for i = 0, which is considered to cover the inorganic compounds), it is therefore possible to use the probability (pio) (see Chapter 6):

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