Here we summarize the consequences of ontic openness that will have a deep impact on ecology:
(1) Immense numbers are easily reached.
(2) Possible development and uncertainty.
(3) Uniqueness of the ecosystem.
(4) Agency—how is this uniqueness chosen.
(5) Emergent properties are common.
In the following section we will attempt to address the above points in context of the applying a systems perspective to ecology and ecological theory.
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